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Current issue : #45 | Release date : 1994-03-30 | Editor : Erik Bloodaxe
IntroductionErik Bloodaxe
Phrack Loopback Part IPhrack Staff
Phrack Loopback Part II / EditorialPhrack Staff
Line Noise Part IPhrack Staff
Line Noise Part IIPhrack Staff
Line Noise Part IIIPhrack Staff
Phrack Prophile on Control CControl C
Running a BBS on X.25Seven Up
No Time for GoodbyesEmmanuel Goldstein
Security Guidelinesunknown
Ho Ho Con Miscellanyvarious
Quentin Strikes AgainWhite Knight & The Omega
10th Chaos Computer CongressManny E. Farber
Defcon II informationPhrack Staff
VMS Informationvarious
Hollywood-Style Bits & BytesRichard Goodwin
Fraudulent Applications of 900 ServicesCodec
Screwing Over Your Local McDonald'sCharlie X
The Senator Markey Hearing Transcriptsunknown
The Universal Data ConverterMaldoror
BOX.EXE - Box Program for Sound BlasterThe Fixer
Introduction To Octel's ASPENOptik Nerve
Radio Free Berkeley Informationunknown
The MCX7700 PABX SystemDr. Delam
Cellular Debug Mode Commandsvarious
International Scenesvarious
Phrack World NewsDatastream Cowboy
Title : International Scenes
Author : various
                              ==Phrack Magazine==

                 Volume Five, Issue Forty-Five, File 27 of 28


                             International Scenes

There was once a time when hackers were basically isolated.  It was
almost unheard of to run into hackers from countries other than the
United States.  Then in the mid 1980's thanks largely to the
existence of chat systems accessible through X.25 networks like
Altger, tchh and QSD, hackers world-wide began to run into each other.
They began to talk, trade information, and learn from each other.
Separate and diverse subcultures began to merge into one collective
scene and has brought us the hacking subculture we know today.  A
subculture that knows no borders, one whose denizens share the common goal
of liberating information from its corporate shackles.

With the incredible proliferation of the Internet around the globe, this
group is growing by leaps and bounds.  With this in mind, we want to help
further unite the communities in various countries by shedding light
onto the hacking scenes that exist there.  If you want to contribute a
file about the hacking scene in your country, please send it to us
at phrack@well.com.

This month we have files about the scenes in Argentina, Australia and Greece.


                Argentina: Hacking at the ass of the world
                               by: OPii.

  Yeah, i know, it's something you just can't stop, whenever you try to sleep
  that recurrent idea comes and recurses through your very brain, you are
  blind, it happens to be worse than MTV, you just can't get to sleep, you stay
  up for hours, you forget to feed yourself, you can't even remember your name,
  you turn catatonic, you stand still stretching every nerve and mumbling
  "hhmmpff..sc.eenn...arghh..teennn..ahhh..." and then you explode in a
  terrifying scream...




  Well, I never really thought that could happened but I'm gonna answer
  the question anyway, I know you probably don't give a fuck about Argentina
  and it's scene but, hey, reading shitty text files is not new to you so
  you wanna change your habits RIGHT NOW? Nahhhhhhhh

  Ok, enough is enough, so let's get to the point.

  Argentina is lagging. While other countries are flying toward the hyper
  publicized "Data Highway", Argentina is still trying to fork it's path in
  the telecommunication's jungle. And this has it's pros and cons.

  Before 1990 the telecommunications in Argentina were in hands of Entel,
  the government's monopolistic arm that ruled the area. But, and there's always
  a BUT, the service provided by Entel was worse than bad. For too many
  people it was normal to wait YEARS for a line, paying $1000+ when they
  finally got it installed, and then a never-ending nightmare began,
  if it rained, the line went dead, if it didn't die it went crazy, you
  could pick up the phone and listen to your favorite radio station but
  of course you could not call anyone. Or you could had bizarre conferences
  with persons you'd never met...it was basically POTS but with features
  that Entel never thought about... N-way calling, call forwarding to hell,
  continuous call waiting in the form of line noise, speed dialing to always
  busy DNs...

  Ahh, you could get a line in less than a month if you paid the $1000
  to some bogus vapor-companies whose workers would came pulling loops out
  of their sleeves and installing them quietly (yeah, all completely illegal),
  these companies were known as the phone mob.
  Remember, Entel was the ONLY company entitled to give you not only a phone
  line but the phone itself.

  And the bills... the bills always had an encrypted message in them, you needed
  a PhD in Black Magic in order to decipher what the fuck the telco was
  charging you... but for most mortals the meaning was only one:
  PAY, pay whatever we order you to pay, and don't ask why.

  You made only local calls? PAY! (local calls are not free in Argentina)
  You didn't make that call to Nairobi, Kenya? PAY!
  Ohh, but you cant dial outside the country with your line? PAY ANYWAY!
  You want to complain? PAY FIRST!

  In 1990 the government decided to split Entel in two companies and sell them
  to private investors, each company would service either the northern or
  southern Argentina, the border being Buenos Aires' downtown (in case you
  don't know Buenos Aires is the capital of Argentina).

  This was nothing more than giving the monopolistic Entel to two new
  monopolistic companies as we will see.

  So the government sold Entel and two new companies appeared in Argentina's
  communications scene:

 - Telefonica de Argentina. Servicing the southern part of Argentina, this
   company is formed by the Spanish Telefonica de Espaa (owned by Spanish gov.)
   and several Argentinian and foreign investors.
 - Telecom Argentina. Services the northern Argentina and it's major
   stockholders are France Telecom and STET (Italy).

  Also, another two companies where born:

 - Telintar. Owned by Telefonica and Telecom. The ONE AND ONLY LD carrier
   in Argentina.
 - Startel. Guess who owns it? Yeah, Telefonica and Telecom, with some
   philanthropic aides like Citicorp, J.P. Morgan and Techint and Perez
   Companc ( Argentinian megacorps). Startel provides TELEX and data
   transmission services as well as mobile and sea radio links. It runs
   the most known Argentinian X.25 PSN (ARPAC).

  The government however had to assure minimal control of the companies
  and verify that their procedures and actions conform to the Argentinian
  laws. That's the duty of the SNC (National Communications Secretary) and
  the CNT ( National Telecommunications Commission), the last being some
  sort of mirror image of the American FCC.

  Did anything changed with the appearance of Telefonica and Telecom?
  Did the customers noticed an improvement in the phone service?

  Both companies began to "correct" Entel's mess rapidly but personally
  I consider it was a little more than nothing for the customer.
  They did change loops, trunks, switches, added features, installed
  inter-office fiber links, private PSNs and more. But, it's 1994
  now, and I still know zillions of persons that had their line dead
  for 4-5 months, or have been visiting the telco offices everyday
  during a month complaining about line_noise/no_dial_tone/

  To conclude this section I will only say that:

   1). There's still a telecom. monopoly in Argentina, now in the form
       of two private companies.
   2). Service got better but it's still a mess, dirty and expensive.
   3). Both companies enjoyed an explosive economic grow since 1990, their
       shares being one of the best things you could get a hold of in the
       stock exchange.

The Phony Phone System

  Argentina uses pulse dialing, except for those lucky persons that
  have the latest installed switches in their COs. If you don't have
  DTMF you HAVE TO ask for it, you can do this dialing 112 (Telecom)
  or visiting the office (Telefonica and/or Telecom). Someone will
  eventually listen to you and answer:
    1) "Uh???? What's DTMF?" - Forget it, ever considered teaching algebra
                               to a chimpanzee?
    2) "I'm sorry you can't dial MF with that line" - No luck
    3) "Not a problem, we'll set it for MF"         - You bastard!

  Switches are Step by Step or Crossbars but since 1990 the number of
  electronic, and specially, digital switches has increased constantly.
  Both, Telecom and Telefonica, use equipment from many different
  vendors: Siemmens, Ericsson, Hitachi, Fujitsu, Northern Telecom, AT&T,
  Alcatel, NEC, Spanish companies, Italians, Norwegians, and God only knows
  what else. Most switches are either European or Japanesse.
  As for PBXs, Siemmens, Ericsson and Fujitsu are the brands of choice for
  most companies, with the recent grow of NT's Meridians among large

  DNs are 7 digits but still 6 digits in low line density locations,
  this includes certain areas in Buenos Aires, the capital. Generally, 6
  digit DNs can't complete an international call for themselves, they need
  operator assistance ( DDI is the "feature" that allows a subscriber
  to make international calls without operator's assistance, geez). Other
  features offered are 3-way, conference, call forwarding, call waiting
  (can't be fucking disabled temporarily!) and more. Telecom also offers a
  service called "Factel"  which is a detailed list of all the calls you made
  in a billing period  (2 months), this comes  with your bills and they
  charge you for EACH PAGE.


  Toll free numbers (800) where introduced two years ago but so far there are
  few 800s to call, one of the few is the CNT's 800 for reception of
  complains about the telco's service.

  Both Telefonica and Telecom use Frecuency Division Multiplexing (FDM) or
  Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) for grouping channels with a bandwidth
  of 4KHz into a multiplexed signal, called Base Band, of several channels.
  Analog and digital multiplexing is used depending on the equipment

  The hierarchy of groups is as follows:

  - Primary Group or Basic Group: 12 4KHz channels for a total bandwidth of
    48Khz, generally placed in the 60-108 KHz space.
    There are three ways for forming a Basic Group: Direct Modulation,
    Pre-group Modulation or Premodulation, I won't discuss 'em in this
  - Secondary Group (aka Super Group): 5 Primary Groups (PG) for a total of
    12x5 = 60  channels and a 240KHz bandwidth., placed in 312-552KHz band
  - Master Group (MG): 5 SGs, 60x5 = 300 channels, 1232 Khz. bandwidth
    ( 5x240Khz + 32Khz.) in the 812-2044Khz. band
  - Super Master Group (SMG):
      3MGs, 3x300 = 900 channels
      3 x 1232Khz + 176  Khz = 3872 KHz bandwidth. (8516-12388 KHz)

  For digital multiplexing, using TDM, things are like this:
  Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) is first used to sample the 4Khz
  channel, then the PAM signal is quantified in 256 discrete values
  ( 8 bits) and this is finally multiplexed as follows:

  -   A basic 2048 Mbit/s for 30 channels  (8Khz/channel for they're sampled...)
  -   8 Mbit/s = 4x2Mbit/s   (  120 channels)
  -  34 Mbit/s = 4x8Mbit/s   (  480 channels)
  -  52 Mbit/s = 6x8Mbit/s   (  720 channels) <--this is not standard)
  - 140 Mbit/s = 4x34Mbit/s  ( 1920 channels)
  - 565 Mbit/s = 4x140Mbit/s ( 7680 channels)
  - 900 Mbit/s = 6x140Mbit/s (11.520 channels)

 Both DC and AC is used for signalling depending on several characteristics
 as trunk length, the switch's technology, etc.
 Reverse polarity and E and M signalling is used with DC, while DP
 and MF is used with AC. CCITT #3,CCITT #4 or CCITT #5 is used
 on international circuits, otherwise R2 is used.
 I won't go into the details of the different in band signalling methods as they
 are probably well known by you... i'll only point that, as you guessed,
 things are set for interesting boxing experiences.
 Argentina is the place for the casual explorer in this topic, even "Joe
 customer" could choose alternate routes for his local calls, all by
 himself, some years ago, prefixing the destination DN with a 3 digit number.
 There are other interesting things to ponder here, like the way calls
 from one company's zone to the other company's zone are completed, etc.
 Also, SxS and Xbar switches are fun to mess with, known their "hidden
 features" like line freezing, forced ANIF and forced linkage of the
 circuit to a given CO.

 Payphones, known as TPAs in local telco. jargon, comes in different
 flavors. First, the one that both companies inherited from their
 predecessor, Entel, this one sports a rotary dial and needs tokens to

 Then the obsoleted Telecom's "card puncher", needed a card with a mag
 strip that the phone would punch each time you used it, these have been
 replaced by the new Telecom's modular payphone. (Perhaps it was a piece of
 shit and Telecom replaced them right away??? ). You wont find one of these

 Telecom's modular payphone works with cards and wont accept tokens or
 coins, these have a cute LCD and controls for volume, language selection
 of the messages displayed as well as buttons for redialing and replacing
 an exhausted card while a call is in progress. It's uses cards with an
 8 contacts on-card chip.

 Telefonica's payphones accept cards AND tokens, they also have a LCD
 and buttons for volume, redial, etc. They also use cards with 8 contacts
 on-card chip. They skipped the "brilliant" card punching stage so these are the
 phones you'll find in Telefonica's area.

  ( this is supposed the change this year? )
 Phone cards cant be recharged when they're exhausted.
  ( eh, this is not quite true )
 Telefonica is said to make their payphones accept regular coins any
 time noooooooowwwwwwww bahahahahahahah .

The Networks

  Networks in Argentina are growing, and are growing fast, but they are
  still poor and slow when compared to other countries nets.
  LAN are usually based on PCs with Novell's Netware in its different
  flavors or some lousy Lantastic.
  As for WANs, the computers you'll ran into are IBM mainframes, DEC
  VAXes running VMS, and Unixes (generally IBM's RS/6000 w/AIX or lower
  end PC clones running SCO).
  Still, open systems are being happily adopted and TCP/IP based LANs are
  emerging everyday.
  There aren't many systems online 24hrs/day but mostly online during work
  hours. You'll find most systems unreliable, bad configured, and worse

  ARPAC, The Jester's Playground
     ARPAC (DNIC==7222) is the most known PSN in Argentina. It has dialup
     access in more than 30 cities in the country, although the fastest
     baud rate for them is an infamous 2400bds.  Leased lines go
     up to a maximum of 19.2Kbds.
     The protocol used is the X.25 suite and ARPAC offers the following
     optional facilities:
     - Closed User Group. (CUG)
     - Fast Select.
     - Packet size negotiation.
     - One-way logical channels. (outgoing/incoming).
     - Non-standard window sizes.
     - Reverse charge request and acceptance.
     - Multipoint access
     - Incoming/outgoing call blocking.
     - Incoming/outgoing call blocking to and from CUGs.

     Obviously these features, should you accept them, imply a little
     extra bucks in your Arpac bill (which will self-destroy your wallet in
     five secs.).
     Startel, the company that runs ARPAC, uses a unit called PTD (it stands
     for Data Transmission Packet in Spanish) for billing purposes.
     Packets are 128 bytes and conform a PTD, transmission of 64 bytes or
     less are considered as 1/2 PTD.
     Startel vacuum cleans it's customers bank accounts this way:
     1) A one time payment for the installation of the X.25 equipment.
     2) A "basic monthly payment" that does not include data traffic.
     3) A "variable monthly payment" that depends on the number of PTDs
        handled by Arpac.

     As for December 1993 this was calculated considering a fee of $0.007595/PTD
     and 1 PTD/min for leased lines + 4 PTD/min for dialup access. Also
     remember that those dialing from the PSTN are paying the local call
     There are discounts based on the day of week and hour of the
     - Type "A" fee (normal fee)            Mon-Fri   06:00-20:00
     - Type "B" fee (40% discount)          Mon-Fri   20:00-24:00
     - Type "C" fee (60% discount)          Mon-Fri   24:00-06:00
                                            Sat.      20:00-06:00
                                            Sun. and
                                            Holidays  00:00-24:00

     International connections are not considered in this figure and are
     billed according to Telintar (LD carrier) fees.
     A 8% or 18% tax is applicable to all payments. Customers can also
     choose a fixed monthly payment instead of basic+traffic payments.

     The software used is that of ITAPAC (DNIC 2222) and as far as i know
     theres no support to mnemonics instead of the plain X.121 addressing.
     Nuas are DNIC+10 digit composed this way:

      [07222]XXXX YYYYY PP
             ^^^^\^^^^^\^^\__  port/subaddress
                   \     \
                     \     \_  host
                         \ __  corresponds to a "nodal area" in Startel's
                               jargon,usually associated with geographic
                               Some valid entries here are:

    NUIs, IURs in Startel's babbling, are formed like this:

     ^^^^^^^^\^^^^^^\_ this is the password, normally 5/6 alphanumerics,
               \       all uppercase.
                   \__ da nui! X is in the [0-9] range and generally the whole
                       8 digits correspond to one of the subscriber's DNs.

    So if you were to use ARPAC you'd make a call by typing

       .. <enter> upon connection (7E1, <= 2.4kbds)


       N9<XXXXXXXX>/<YYYYYY>-<nua>   ; when using a NUI. or

       <nua>                         ; w/o NUI needs Reverse Charge
                                     ; Acceptance of course.

    You don't wanna call them NUIs when talking to Startel personnel
    (i.e. social  engineering)  unless you want to become instantly suspected
    to be an evil phraudster (aka haq3R).

  "CIBA", The Infamous, or BT Tymnet's retarded child (DNIC==7220)
    If you cared enough to read the BT Tymnet's worldwide dialups listing
    you probably noticed a few entries for Argentina. These were regularly
    used by "net explorers" in the mid 80's and were known as "CIBA" among
    them. CIBA dialups are 300bds (wow!) and use CCITT v.21 protocol (ATB0
    for your modem). At that time the fastest ARPAC dialup was 1200bds.
    All in all CIBA is nothing more than the door to BT Tymnet in
    Argentina (node 7407, host 1212). There's no direct access to interesting
    utilities such as "xray" and the likes.
    NUIs here were stupidly choosen and easily scanned since they followed
    two known patterns:
       naargXXXXna , and
       enargXXXnet  X being in the [0-9] range.
    Many of these were not passworded. Of course no one would even think to
    scan NUIs at 300bds nowadays...


    The Internet is rarely know and even less used in the student,
    professor, computer and communications professionals circles. It's a
    depressive experience to explain the workings of "telnet","rlogin","ftp"
    and such "eccentricities" to people who were supposed to know about them
    from their TCP/IP books, courses and lectures. You, reader, could
    allege that a networked unix system is enough to explain this, but
    despite the technical explanations, the political, economic and social
    implications of the Internet will remain unknown until a vast amount of
    persons actually USE and EXPERIENCE it. And I'm not talking about
    "Joe citizen" here, I'm talking about people that would actually NEED
    the net if they were to improve their work.
    It's like describing the taste of an apple to someone, he'll
    surely understand what you say but don't expect him to understand what
    it tastes like until he actually bites it.

    The Internet top level authority in Argentina is the Foreign Relations
    Ministry and its link to the rest of the world is sponsored by the
    'United Nations Development Programme'. 'whois' output follows:

     United Nations Development Programme (NET-ARNET)
        Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores y Culto
        Reconquista 1088 ler. Piso - Informatica
        Buenos Aires

        Netname: ARNET-NET

          Amodio, Jorge Marcelo  (JMA49)  PETE@ATINA.AR
          +54 1313 8082

        Domain System inverse mapping provided by:


        Record last updated on 06-May-91.

    Argentina has only an UUCP link (well, once again this is just the publicly
    known info...) to the Internet through UUNET, connecting several uucp
    linked networks to it (RAN,RECYT,etc). Atina.ar is the most important
    host in this scheme, seconded by the Science and Technology Secretary's
    host (SECYT) and the University of Buenos Aires (UBA) host located at
    the Exact and Natural Sciencies Faculty in a dependency known as the
    There's also a company the offers Internet connectivity bypassing atina
    and uunet. 'whois' output:

     SatLink Uucp/Internet (SATLINK-DOM)
        Casilla de Correo 3618
        (1000) Correo Central
        Buenos Aires

        Domain Name: SATLINK.NET

        Administrative Contact, Technical Contact, Zone Contact:
          Stolovitzky, Horacio  (HS3)  postmaster@SATLINK.NET

        Domain servers in listed order:


        Record last updated on 24-Mar-93.

    There are other links that bypass atina and uunet, all of them part of
    corporate networks. (i.e. IBM's VNET, etc)

    Although everyone says theres only a UUCP link to the Internet, word is
    that there are a few hidden 9600bds leased lines shared among many hosts
    at some sites, at any rate this is completely insufficient for servicing
    researchers, students and other interested parties, thus the existence
    of these links is kept as a sort of secret.

    64kbds links are supposed to be installed  for interactive sessions
    this year at certain sites.

  Other networks
    Many companies form their corporate networks as CUGs on Arpac, have
    their own network, or both. Telcos, consulting firms, banks and
    insurance companies fall in these categories  and are quite interesting
    research projects for the inquisitive hacker.

The "Scene"
    There's not much to say about the Argentinian scene. Given the cost
    and the time you have to wait to get a phone line installed there
    aren't many BBSes up 24hrs. Most of them are up during nighttime, from
    10:00/11:00 pm to 6:00/7:00am, of these, very, very few are dedicated to
    hack/phreak topics.
    Also, considering that theres no decent internet access at your local
    university you would be forced to explore X.25 networks in order to
    fulfill your natural interest and seek of knowledge.
    But there aren't many hackers either. Most Argentinians you'll find on
    the nets are mere abusers with one final goal: to get to QSD or the
    likes. While this sounds rather amusing (eh) there's an explanation to
    In the mid 80's a few Argentinians used to exploit CIBA's clueless
    procedures for choosing NUIs. At that time the fastest ARPAC dialup
    was 1200bds so 300bds was not that bad after all, and not bad at all
    as you were sure you could find a new NUI in a matter of hours.
    Yes, many people wasted their diminishing lifes in QSD, but for some this
    new x.25 thingie was more than a mean for meeting friends over the net
    and having endless chats with them, some needed to learn and understand
    the workings of the nets and the many different systems hooked to it.
    For those the place was Altos, and AMP (although you couldn't connect to
    PSS directly). And Altos proved to be of great help for Argentinians
    that got introduced to the hack/phreak world not on a BBS but right on a
    X.25 network. And so did the sequel of Korn-chat sites (tchh,lutzifer,
    italian "artemus") or even Pegasus and LINA sometimes.
    Around '89 or '90 an Efinet (Efinet == Fidonet wannabe) meeting was held,
    and during it someone gave out a "strange bunch of numbers in the form
    of some sort of code or something" (this being an ARPAC NUI followed by
    QSD's NUA) and the attendees ran home and tested it, just to see them
    connected to the France chat extrordinaire. Meanwhile, things were
    getting hot elsewhere in the world, and those once famous X.25 hangouts
    went virtually dead, so these newcomers wouldn't get in touch with
    Argentinian hackers (as they wouldn't appear in QSD) or other countries'
    hackers (as they were having a bad time or retiring or simply leaving
    X.25 alone). So, even if they wanted to learn, these freshmen, for good or
    for bad, were on their own and still are...

    The vast majority of the argentine society never heard the words "hacker"
    or "phreaker" or, if they did, they relate it to things happening in
    other countries, far, far away.
    It wasn't until '93, in accordance with the apparently boundless tendency to
    use the word "cybersomething" when referring to anything remotely related to
    new technologies, computers, or scifi novels or any other thing that
    requires publicity, i.e. see cyberIdol's cybershitty cyberCD to understand
    what I cybermean, uhg excuse me, back to the point...
    It wasn't until '92 or '93 that the media discovered this brilliant trend
    for selling more and more, apparently some genius said: "Hey, what if we
    sell the future? What if we write about how will life be, how  will
    technology be, how will the planet be, how will your dog be? All this
    with some vague journalistic odor of course. I bet we will sell more!".
    So they did, and in this frame the hacker/phreak scene is more like the
    salt to dress the salad, yet things didn't get to the extreme of
    sensationalism and hacking is portrayed as an activity bound to some
    new sort of romanticism, still things are very much confused, putting
    hackers, phreakers, crackers, pirates, virii authors and mere fraudsters all
    together in the same bag (yes, but what would you expect anyway?). Even some
    interviews to an ex-hacker (who now runs a data security firm), and a
    self proclaimed "expert" ( more a virus expert, IF anything) have
    On the other side,  many "eleet poseurs" have appeared too, but as one
    could expect, they are nothing more than mere poseurs and certainly not
    worth more than a phrase here.

Final Words!
    This is the 'scene' AS I SEE IT, i don't consider myself an enlightened
    entity, thus I acknowledge my description might not be objective nor
    complete (in fact it might be complete bullshit but, do I care? do YOU
    Argentina is a country where lots of things are still there, waiting to
    be discovered, virgin beaches for you to explore and enjoy. Security is
    generally lax, and people is generally not security-aware and even less
    hacker-aware, trashing and social engineering are simple things that DO
    give many benefits.
    As far as I know theres no specific law dealing with computer related
    crimes (whatever that mean...), and as long as you don't get yourself
    involved in the traditional crime pictures you are pretty much safe.
    On the other hand, the bad and expensive phone service, the lack of
    internet connectivity and the limited number of BBSes dedicated to the
    so called "underground" (yes, I did it, I used the damned word, argh)
    make things tougher for newcomers.

    Perhaps the most interesting thing is that there's not much knowledge of
    what hacking/phreaking means and this gives us an unique opportunity to avoid
    misunderstandings and errors that occurred in other countries. Perhaps
    it is possible to influence people in a positive way, making them think
    about secrecy, security, privacy and responsibility issues. We are
    still free of Geraldos, we didn't suffer witch hunts ala Operation
    Sundevil, the words "hacker" and "phreaker" have not been demonized yet,
    although the Orwelian-way is common practice among the telcos, but
    nobody seem to give a fuck about this, or maybe nobody notice?.

    So, this is it, the file has come to an end and I think it's enough
    for an introduction, I did not cover cellular telephony nor satellite
    links and companies providing related services, I did not mention many
    other things but my intention was to write a description of how things
    are here, not a fucking encyclopedia.

    If you think that many topics are deliberately vague and not covered
    in deep, that some information might be not accurate or if you don't
    agree with anything I've stated you can contact me at:

          HBO            +541-788-4850 24hrs.
          Loser's joint  +541-658-7983 23:00-6:00 (GMT -3)


Version: 2.3a



     ( or The lack thereof! )


            Data King


For several years now the Australian underground scene has turned better yet
worse at the same time. The amount of companies and colleges using datacomm
has dramatically increased. In my opinion it is still not yet to the stage of
America in this respect though.

The number of 'hackers' has increased, but I use the term loosely as I do not
consider many of these so called 'hackers' to be hackers. Why do I say this?
I say this because most people who hang out in the underground scene in
Australia consider hacking to be getting an account at a university off of a
friend and then snarfing the password file and running crack over it. They are
only interested in things that will give them access to IRC, FTP & Newsgroups.
( No flames please I am talking in general here! )

Many of them have never heard of services like MIDAS, Minerva & AUSTPAC and
even if they were given a dialup to one of these services I doubt they would
have a clue about how to use it. We have a wealth of services out there just
waiting to be tried, but there is almost no one who is interested in doing so,
to give you an example. One night I was working away on my box at about 3am and
a 'hacker' mate had crashed on the couch. I went to dial into one of the local
universities and I misdialed the number.  At first I didn't realize that I had
dialed the wrong number since I got a carrier. My modem connected and then just
sat there instead of the usual annex prompt. I bashed the old enter key a
few times and suddenly I was presented with a menu to an accounting system.

'Sheet,' I thought, and screaming to wake my mate up ( at this stage I thought I
had connected to the university and it hadn't reset the line after the last user
hung up ) I started to explore the system, it soon became evident that it wasn't
the university but something entirely different, by this time my 'hacker' mate
had woken up. 'Whaaaaaaaaat?' comes the response from the couch, I briefly
explained what had transpired and his only response was 'Ughhhhh' as he went
back to sleep. Needless to say I spent the next 3 hours playing with the
system, and by the time I had finished I could crash the accounting menu and
exit to the operating system.

The system turned out to be fairly boring and proved to be of no use to me,
BUT I had to assume that before I knew, it could have been something really
interesting and to spend time fully exploring it, where as my 'hacker' mate
couldn't give a stuff, 'coz it wasn't on internet'.


Australian Hackers no longer seem to be using advanced techniques to penetrate
a system, very few would have any idea how to use TCP/IP to gain access to a
system. Most satisfy themselves with obtaining an id elsewhere and then
snarfing the password file and running crack over it. When it comes to things
such as VMS the attitude I usually encounter is "VMS urgh, what bloody good
is it!". There are some very good Hackers in Australia but most of them do
not hang around in the underground scene, rather they are usually university
students who learn how to make the best use of the system. Writing things like
ICMP bombs, and Sniffers is usually left to these people, in fact I can not
think of any active non university student hacker who lives in Australia and
uses these sort of techniques.


To the best of my knowledge there has only ever been one underground conference
in Australia, and that was from memory in 1984, it was called Hackfest and it
was nothing compared to HOHOCON or Hacking at the End of the Universe.

At the time we all thought it was great, and I must admit it did boost the
sharing and finding of new info for a while.

I, in association with  one or two others, have been thinking of arranging
another Hackfest to be held in 1994, it will probably be held in Melbourne,
Australia. If you live in Australia and would like to attend then mail me
and I will keep you informed. ( Det. Sgt. Ken Day: Don't bother trying to
spy on Hackfest if it goes ahead, you're more than welcome to attend! )


In Australia we have several national and international networks, here is a
list of some of them:

MIDAS       International Packet switching network DNIC = 5053
Minerva     Automated Office Network w/ International PSS
AUSTPAC     Australian Packet Switching Network DNIC = 5052
SprintNET   Need I explain this???
AARNET      The Australian Network that covers Internet in Australia
TRAN$END    Subset of Austpac ( used by Banks for ATM/EFTPOS transmissions )
Compuserve  Need I explain this???
Discovery   Australian Videotext system ( Not sure if still in Service )
?????       The Australian Military Network ( Don't know its name )
TAXLAN      The Australian Tax Office ( IRS ) Network


For years people in Australia believed that phreaking was only really possible
by pitting, this included Telecom Investigations Department, but we know that
this is not true. Methods that have been used in Australia include:

Blue Boxing off of an American Operator Line
Pitting ( ie: Linemans handset connected to a telecom junction box )
Clicking ( Electric shock to a public phone )
Boxing off of a disconnected number ( almost impossible now )
Calling Cards ( both American and now Australian Calling Cards )
PBX's ( 0014-800's and local PBX's )
Mobile Telephones ( ie Cellular Phones and b4 that the old Radio mobiles )

There are probably other methods as well but I am not a phreaker so I am not
the best person to comment on this. Boxing in Australia is getting dangerous
now as we are getting more and more of the new digital exchanges which make it
a lot easier to trace, or at least so I am told.

There were some people in South Australia making/recharging Telephone cards,
( Like a disposable calling card, but you buy them in news agents and they
have a dollar value, once used up you throw them away ) but these people were
apparently caught and telecom have taken measures to ensure that this is no
longer possible.


We have a large range of VMBs in Australia, and with the proliferation of
VMBs has come the art of Hacking VMBs, we even have people here in Australia
that do virtually nothing else other than play with VMBs. These people tend
to go a lot further than just cracking the pin numbers, some of them have
learned enough about the signalling systems used by these systems to virtually
take control of the system and make it do what they want. Once again this is
an area that I do not know a lot about.

We also have a couple of individuals that run something called the Scene Inpho
line, Which essentially is a VMB with a long recorded message giving out tips,
rumors, and general rubbish. The number to the Scene Inpho Line unfortunately
constantly changes as the owners of the VMB notice what's going on and shut
that particular box down.


There are not a lot of good underground BBS's in Australia, a couple that I
know of that come to mind are Destiny Stone II, Empire of Darkness,
& Watchtower. I can not comment on Destiny Stone II as I have never called it.
However, when I used to called Empire of Darkness it was so lame it wasn't funny
and now he has gone 96+ only I can't call it ( I'm poor and can't afford a
new modem ;) ).

Watchtower showed potential but unfortunately the sysop of it is very slack and
needs to get off of his butt and do some work on it! The underground boards in
Australia tend to reflect the general state of the scene, ie: complete and total

Most H/P boards in Australia are also warez sites and tend to be pretty lame and
insecure because of all the warez puppies on them, I can not think of a really
good board in Australia that is still operating.


In the last year the Australian Federal Police, Computer Crimes Unit has been
quite busy raiding people. As a result there have been 4 convictions that I
know of, and another 2 people waiting for charges to be laid.

The people convicted and there sentences are as follows:

Data King (me) Guilty but no record ( escaped conviction under section 19b of
               the act ) $300.00 fine and $500 2 year Good Behavior bond.
               ( Pleaded Guilty to 2 Charges )

Electron       6 Months Jail ( suspended sentence ), $500  6 Month Good
               Behavior bond, & 300 hours Community Service Work.
               ( Pleaded Guilty to 14 Charges )

Nom            6 Months Jail ( suspended sentence ), $500  6 Month Good
               Behavior bond, & 200 hours Community Service Work.
               ( Pleaded Guilty to 2 Charges )

Phoenix        12 Months Jail ( suspended sentence ), $1000 12 Month Good
               Behavior bond, & 500 hours Community Service Work.
               ( Pleaded guilty to 15 Charges )

In the most part people get busted in Australia due to either their stupidity
( Hi Phoenix! ), being lagged in by some low life, or by trusting someone they
should not of ( Hi Phoenix! ).


Both Hacking and Phreaking have been illegal in Australia for quite a few years
I will not go into details here as hopefully there will be an article in this
issue of Phrack covering the laws and possible penalties.

Computer Crime in Australia is the responsibility of the Australian Federal
Police Computer Crimes Unit. The people known to us in this unit are:

Det. Sgt. Ken Day
Det. Neil Campbell
Det. Steve Visic

( Sorry guys if I spelled your names wrong - NOT! ;) )

If you are able to add any names to the list, please mail them to me and any
other info you have on them. That way we can begin to build up a dossier on
our enemies!


There seems to be a growing awareness in the general populace of Australia.
There has been quite a bit of media hype on hacking over the last year, and
slowly the public seems to be getting a great fear of hackers. To me it seems
ridiculous, as the only real hackers that the public should have feared lived
in the early 80's. Today's generation of Australian hackers are pretty HOPELESS
in my humble opinion. To give an example, when Electron, Nom, & Phoenix's court
cases were getting media attention I was sitting in my parent's lounge room one
night when the news was covering their sentencing. My father thought that
these people were very dangerous and should have gotten a bigger sentence than
they did.  At this time he did not know about my bust. I have explained it to
him now but he still doesn't seem to understand...oh well that life I guess.


This is how I see the Australian scene, If you disagree, want to comment, send
me info for future articles, get on the hackfest mailing list, or just want to
have a chat you can mail me at:


If you require privacy you can send me stuff that is encoded via pgp, my
pgp public key is as follows:

Version: 2.0


I can also usually be found on IRC a couple of hours a night in these channels
under the nick of dking:

 #apana  #hack  #phreak  #linux

Thanks for assistance with this file go to:

           SPiN-DoC        Olorin


                Connie Lingus
       ( Motivational Support - <SMILE> )

Have phun, and remember:



              ()                                              ()
              ()          "Australian Hacking Laws"           ()
              ()                                              ()
              ()                 21/01/93                     ()
              ()                                              ()
              ()                            (c) Data King     ()
              ()                                              ()

                     Crimes Act 1914 (Commonwealth)

Part VIA - Offences Relating to Computers

Section 19B (1) Order & Recognizance

The Court can discharge you under this section, with a surety and/or
recognizance given by you.

If discharged under this section you may be put on a good behavior bond
of up to but not exceeding 2 years. Other conditions may be placed on you
by the court also, this conditions can be anything that the court considers

To have this section come into effect the following must apply:

The Court is satisfied that the charge(s) are proved, but is of the opinion,
having regard to:

 The Character, Antecedents, Age, Health, & Mental Condition

that it is unexpedient to inflict any punishment or any punishment other
than a nominal one on you.

Basically what this means is that you can be found guilty and not have a
conviction recorded against your name, but you must realign that the
department of public prosecutions may object to this and then you will have
to try and convince the Judge to ignore what the DPP says, (not easy).

Also please realign that if you were to receive a section 19B and then were
caught doing naughty things again and you are still under your good behavior
bond, you will forfeit your bond and have to stand trial again for the
original offence(s).

Section 74A - Interpretation

(1) In this part, unless the contrary intention appears:

"carrier" means:

        (a) a general carrier within the meaning of the Telecommunications
        Act 1991; or

        (b) a mobile carrier within the meaning of that Act; or

        (c) a person who supplies eligible services within the meaning of
        that Act under a class licence issued under section 209 of that Act;

"Commonwealth" includes a public authority under the Commonwealth;

"Commonwealth computer" means a computer, a computer system or a part of a
computer system owned, leased or operated by the Commonwealth;

"Data" includes information, a computer program or part of a computer program.

(2) In this Part;

        (a) a reference to data stored in a computer includes a reference to
        data entered or copied into the computer; and

        (b) a reference to data stored on behalf of the Commonwealth in a
        computer includes a reference to:

                (i) data stored in the computer at the direction or request
                of the Commonwealth; and

                (ii) data supplied by the Commonwealth that is stored in the
                computer under, or in the course of performing, a contract
                with the Commonwealth.

Section 76B - Unlawful access to data in Commonwealth or other computers

(1) A person who intentionally and without authority obtains access to:

        (a) data stored in a Commonwealth computer; or

        (b) data stored on behalf of the Commonwealth in a computer that
        is not a Commonwealth computer;

IS GUILTY OF AN OFFENCE - PENALTY: Imprisonment for 6 months

(2) A person who

        (a) with intent to defraud any person and without authority obtains
        access to data stored in a Commonwealth computer, or to data stored on
        behalf of the Commonwealth in a computer that is not a Commonwealth
        computer; or

        (b) intentionally and without authority obtains access to data stored
        in a Commonwealth computer, or to data stored on behalf of the
        Commonwealth in a computer that is not a Commonwealth computer, being
        data that the person knows or ought reasonably to know relates to:

                (i) the security, defense or international relations of

                (ii) the existence or identity of a confidential source of
                information relating to the enforcement of a criminal law of
                the Commonwealth or of a State or Territory;

                (iii) the enforcement of a law of the Commonwealth or of a
                State or Territory;

                (iv) the protection of public safety;

                (v) the personal affairs of any person;

                (vi) trade secrets;

                (vii) records of a financial institution; or

                (viii) commercial information the disclosure of which could
                cause advantage or disadvantage to any person;

IS GUILTY OF AN OFFENCE - PENALTY: Imprisonment for 2 Years

(3) A person who:

        (a) has intentionally and without authority obtained access to data
        stored in a Commonwealth computer, or to data stored on behalf of the
        Commonwealth in a computer that is not a Commonwealth computer;

        (b) after examining part of that data, knows or ought reasonably
        to know that the part of the data which the person examined relates
        wholly or partly to any of the matters referred to in paragraph
        (2)(b); and

        (c) continues to examine that data;

IS GUILTY OF AN OFFENCE - PENALTY: for contravention of this subsection:
                                   Imprisonment for 2 years

Section 76C - Damaging data in Commonwealth and other computers

A person who intentionally and without authority or lawful excuse:

        (a) destroys, erases or alters data stored in, or inserts data into a
        Commonwealth computer;

        (b) interferes with, or interrupts or obstructs the lawful use of a
        Commonwealth computer;

        (c) destroys, erases, alters or adds to data stored on behalf of the
        Commonwealth in a computer that is not a Commonwealth computer; or

        (d) impedes or prevents access to, or impairs the usefulness or
        effectiveness of, data stored in a Commonwealth computer or data stored
        on behalf of the Commonwealth in a computer that is not a Commonwealth

IS GUILTY OF AN OFFENCE - PENALTY: Imprisonment for 10 years

Section 76D - Unlawful access to data in Commonwealth and other computers by
              means of certain facilities.

(1) A person who, by means of a facility operated or provided by the
Commonwealth or by a carrier, intentionally and without authority obtains
access to data stored in a computer.

IS GUILTY OF AN OFFENCE - PENALTY: Imprisonment for 6 months

(2) A person who:

        (a) by means of a facility operated or provided by the Commonwealth
        or by a carrier, with intent to defraud any person and without
        authority obtains access to data stored in a computer; or

        (b) by means of such a facility, intentionally and without authority
        obtains access to data stored in a computer, being data that the
        person knows or ought reasonably to know relates to:

                (i) the security, defense, or international relations of

                (ii) the existence or identity of a confidential source of
                information relating to the enforcement of a criminal law of
                the Commonwealth or of a State or Territory;

                (iii) the enforcement of a law of the Commonwealth or of a
                State or Territory;

                (iv) the protection of public safety;

                (v) the personal affairs of any person;

                (vi) trade secrets;

                (vii) records of a financial institution; or

                (viii) commercial information the disclosure of which could
                cause advantage or disadvantage to any person;

IS GUILTY OF AN OFFENCE - PENALTY: Imprisonment for 2 Years

(3) A person who:

        (a) by means of a facility operated or provided by the Commonwealth
        or by a carrier, has intentionally and without authority obtained
        access to data stored in a computer;

        (b) after examining part of that data, knows or ought reasonably to
        know that the part of the data which the person examined relates wholly
        or partly to any of the matters referred to in paragraph (2)(b); and

        (c) continues to examine that data;

IS GUILTY OF AN OFFENCE - PENALTY: Imprisonment for 2 Years.

Section 76E - Damaging data in  Commonwealth and other computers by means of
              certain facilities

A person who, by means of a facility operated or provided by the Commonwealth,
intentionally and without authority or lawful excuse:

        (a) destroys, erases or alters data stored in, or inserts data into a

        (b) interferes with, or interrupts or obstructs the lawful use of,
        a computer; or

        (c) impedes or prevents access to, or impairs the usefulness or
        effectiveness of, data stored in a computer;

IS GUILTY OF AN OFFENCE - PENALTY: Imprisonment for 10 Years.

Section 76F - Saving of State and Territory Laws

Sections 76D and 76E are not intended to exclude or limit the concurrent
operation of any law of a State or Territory.

You may have noticed that any hack of a Computer in Australia could result in
you staying in a prison for quite a long time, as almost any hack would be
and offence under just about all of the subsections listed above, combine this
with a consecutive sentence and you *COULD* be in jail for over 25 years.

                          "Be Careful Out There!!"


  -- The HELLenic Digital Subculture Scene --
        by Opticon the Disassembled

- "EL33t3 Hackers": "TH3rE R N0 UNKraKKable ZyZTEMZ.EV3ry1 HAS[S] It's H0L3z."
- I'm sure every "EL33t3#@$$^!!! HaKKER" has at least one hole by nature.

 "The Gods could have chosen any place but they chose Greece"...Yes, they did.
By mistake probably.

 Agricultural country, light industry, member of the European Community, ten
million residents, surrounded by sea (polluted in some areas) and forests
(burned in some areas). Four thousand years old culture, beautiful language
(due to it's ancientness) [...]

 Digital subculture scene?  Quite a few articles appear on newspapers and
magazines about CyberPunk.  Quite a few people claim to be hackers (elite ones),
crackers (elite ones), phreakers (elite ones) and coders (elite ones).
University students get insane pleasure when talking about their last
achievements, how they cracked all the accounts of a shadowed password file,
and how they transferred 2000 true color, porno JPEG and phracking files.
Public bulletin board systems distribute blue boxing related articles (Hail
Mark Tabas!) and pirate boards distribute "oNE DaY WAREZ!@!#".

 "Phone freaks, crackers, hackers, virus makers." At the end, an interview
with a young software cracker.  He listens to TECHNO ("the only real music"),
he would like to buy an Apple Powerbook and he needs only five minutes to
"crack a disk".

 No busts have taken place AS FAR AS I KNOW. Only innocent pirates and couriers
were prosecuted years ago, due to distribution of cracked programs for ZX
Spectrum, Commodore and Amstrad ("peeks, pokes, hints & tips").

 An article about "Legion Of Doom! - ComSec" appeared on November 1991:
"X-Hackers offer their services to companies". Glamorous picture of the
group, opinions, history, comments from a phracking illiterate journalist.

 An-archic 'zines (printed format) were publishing digital underground related
news, since mid '80s.

 A family man in my city has been using a black box for 10 years.  He accepts
calls from relatives living in Italy.

 At the age of seventeen Nikos Nasoyfis wrote a book about 8088/8086 assembly
programming and cracking of protection methods. He is considered to be a
genius in those areas. Upon the request of a magazine he created "the first
Hellenic virus".

 No Digital Underground / An-archy related systems exist, except DiES IRAE.
But of course " If [When] you are good, nobody knows that you are there ".

* Packet Switching Data Networks

 DNIC:  2023
                           LOG-IN PROCEDURES
 1.  Dial access number:
          1161 for both 300 and 1200 bps.  Additionally, the
          following access numbers are available within Athens:
          8848481, 8849021, and 3477699.
 2.  Upon connection, the user types three dots and Enter or Return:
          ... (CR)
 3.  The network will respond
          :  HELLASPAC
     If no response, repeat step 2.
 4.  Upon receipt of the network prompt, the user types (in capital letters):
          NXXXX - 0 WWWW (CR)
     where XXXX is the user's NUI and WWWW is the NUA.
 5.  HELLASPAC will answer
          :  COM
 6.  To log off, type
     The network will respond
          CLR CONF

 Until the end of the year a free experimental 2400bps ( 1200 baud + MNP 5 )
dial up public service will be operating at 0961-11111 (if you call this a
2400 baud NUI, shame on you!  You know who you are :-) ). 0961-22222 will
lead to HellasTel ( Video Text ).  Can't tell if foreigners can call these


 Ariadnet is a Hellenic research/academic network sponsored by the European
Community. There are two main hosts: LEON and ISOSUN. The first one serves
the public; dial-ups, low cost (10.000 drg for three months), yet low disk
quota (starts from 1 MB) due to "the workstation's incapability to carry
a lot of hard disks". The second one serves users who call from other
sources (i.e. PSDNs). Thanks to Ariadnet most universities provide free
internet access (usually they reach 1 KiloByte per second) in conjunction to
restricted HellasPac access (a.k.a. high expenses).

The following captures will talk by themselves.


ISOSUN @ ARIADNE     hellenic research/academic  network
login: help
Last login: Wed Mar 18 19:37:13 from 38212026
SunOS Release 4.0.3_EXPORT (ARIADNE.FEB2) #1: Thu Feb 13 13:04:45 EET 1992

Please, do not leave your mail in mailing queue for a long time.
Clean them up often. Otherwise your mail may be lost....


        A R I A D N E T - X.121 server


isosun SUN:INTERNET,X400-R&D-MHS             10100101, leon 10100102
PRIME 9950 primos: EARN-BITNET               10100100, gatos 10100104
mVAX  DECNET-CERN (cluster)                  10100103, KE-lab 10100108
EIE mVAx                                          101002005
EKT Data Bases PERKIN-ELMER                       10100200
Kapodistriako Pan.CYBER-NOS        10100401, mVAX 10100402
Aristotelion Pan.      mVAX    13100104, unix 386 13100108,
Metsovion Polytechnion
     vms-mvax                   1010030107, sun 1010030106
     High Energy Lab                              10100351
Gen.Secr. Research UNIX V   1010050008, sequent 1010050007
ITY Pan. Patra,  CTI  unix server                 16100101
ATE Pan. Crete , FORTH                            18100100
ASSOE(Athens U. of Economics)  VAX/VMS            10100600
NATIONAL OBSERVATORY  VAX/VMS                     10100700
Rethimno Pan Kritis/Economics-Philosophy          38312025
Chania Poly. Kritis                               38212026
ATDP6533172  V21/V22 MODEM hayes, no parity, 1 stop bit, 8 data
connect to ARIADNET pad service @ Demokritos
HELLASPAC Gateway, IXI Gateway, X400 Gateway, Internet Gateway

INFORMATION: +301 6513392 FAX: 6532175
TEAM: Y.Corovesis,A.Drigas,T.Telonis (+4 students)
ADMINISTRATION: A.Arvilias tel:+301 6515224
NEXT:  TEI-Pirea, EMY, NTUA-physicslab, Thessaloniki VAX9000


* Phone Network

 The last four years or so, the old analog switching centers (HDW, Rotary,
Crossbar) are being replaced with digital ones (Ericsson-Intracom AXE-10
and Siemens EWSD).  Theoretically that should be completed by the end of 1994
(according to the Christian way of chronometry).

 These provide the following for the masses:

    PAGING (was operating anyway)
    TOLL TICKETING (sure they do!)

 ...and of course better control OF the masses FOR the state.

 I got very interesting results exploring those new centers. If I ever finish
the project it will appear in Phrack or UPi (hopefully). Damn...Better to
think over that twice.  Abusing raises eyebrows.

 The country direct numbers use the 00-800-country code-11 format. Believe it
or not; I had to social engineer the directory assistance operator to start
moving.  Not to mention the time and examples he needed to understand what I
was talking about. Bad luck?

     FINLAND                00-800-358-11
     CYPRUS                 00-800-357-11
     ICELAND                00-800-353-11
     BRITAIN/NORTH IRELAND  00-800-44-11
     SWEDEN                 00-800-46-11
     HOLLAND                00-800-31-11
     NORWAY                 00-800-47-11
     DENMARK                00-800-45-11
     FRANCE                 00-800-33-11
     GERMANY                00-800-49-11
     M.C.I.                 00-800-122155
     SPRINT                 00-800-1411
     AT&T                   00-800-1311

 As of now only U.S.A. direct numbers can be used for blue boxing. It was
possible to do so and it should be possible nowadays, although I cannot
confirm that.  The last months I have spent A LOT of time scanning numbers
and frequencies but I didn't come to an end.  To be continued...

* Cellular Phone Networks

 The pen-European digital (shit!) mobile telephony system G.S.M. is being
implemented. Nothing is solid yet and of course no one claims (trumpet fanfare
added here) that phreaks out through that. In the first state PANAFON will
cover Athens and Argosaronic and afterwards all the big cities: Thessaloniki
(it should be functioning by now), Patra, Heraklio et cetera. They are planning
to cover more than 90% of the country's residents and 75% of the geographical
region. Problems appear thanks to the strange terrain. I don't know what is
going on with TELESTET.

 The total registered subscribers are considered to be about ten thousand.

* Miscellaneous

 An Integrated Service Digital Network is being established and local
universities are installing [optical] Fiber Distributed Data Interfaces.
PBXs are now becoming popular.

 Most operators know little or nothing on computer security or managing in
general. That's why some of them accept offered help and provide afterwards
(non-privileged) accounts and old, yet valuable, duplicate manuals. If some
anti-hacking measurements are taken, that is thanks to the company employers
who maintain and prepare the systems.

 Do not hang on this, but I think that there are no laws concerning H/P in

 Needless to say that no conferences take place. Of course QSD & IRC...ohhh
fuck it.
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