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.:: Understanding DMS Part II ::.

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Current issue : #14 | Release date : 1987-07-28 | Editor : Knight Lightning
IntroductionKnight Lightning
Phrack Pro-Phile X Featuring TerminusTaran King
The Conscience of a Hacker {Reprint}The Mentor
The Reality of The Myth [REMOBS]Taran King
Understanding DMS Part IIControl C
TRW Business TerminologyControl C
Phrack World News Special Edition #1Knight Lightning
Phrack World News Issue XIV/1Knight Lightning
Phrack World News Issue XIV/2Knight Lightning
Title : Understanding DMS Part II
Author : Control C
                               ==Phrack Inc.==

                            Issue XIV, File 5 of 9
 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|
|_|                                                                       |_|
|_|              Understanding the Digital Multiplexing System            |_|
|_|                                 Part II                               |_|
|_|                                                                       |_|
|_|                              by Control C                             |_|
|_|                                                                       |_|
|_|             An Advanced Telecommunications, Inc. Production           |_|
|_|_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _|_|
|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|



DMS switches were first introduced in 1979.  Since then it has been modified
to interface with numerous types of switches.  DMS has the ability to
interface with SP-1, #5 XBar, 1ESS, 2ESS, 3ESS, 4ESS, NX1D, NX1E, TSD, SXS,
ETS4, NO. 1 EAC, NO. 2 EAX, NO. 3 EAX, TSPS, CAMA/3CL boards, Stromberg
Carlson Turret of ONI and Visual Indicators, Modified North Electric TSD for
ONI, Stomberg Carlson (CAMA operator Position - ONI/ANI), AE #31 Switchboard,
Co-located NT/AE switchboard I/C, O/G, UDC data poller of OM, DACS (Directory
Assistance Charging System), NT #144 LTD, WECO #14 LTD, WECO #16 LTD, CALRS
(Centralized Automated Loop Reporting System), Badger 612A, AE #1 and #21 LTD,
AE #30, SC #14 LTD, Lordel MITS70 line Test System, Porta System Line Test
Unit, Pulsar II IMTS, Teradyne loop test unit, and the WECO MLT 1 (Mechanized
Loop Testing System).


Common Channel Interoffice Signaling
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Common Channel Interoffice Signaling (CCIS) is a way of signaling and a way of
implementing network level services.  CCIS provides reliable, crystal clear
data signaling links between the network and the switching offices.  The CCIS
signaling method uses transmission equipment that is separate from voice
trunks.


Common Channel Interoffice Signaling No. 6
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The basis for the CCIS system is the International Consultative Committee on
Telephone and Telegraph (CCITT) No. 6 international standard, which is brought
to its fullest capacity for use in the Stored Program Control (SPC) network of
AT&T.

The CCIS6 network contains a bunch of signaling regions, each having a pair of
interconnected Signal Transfer Points (STP).  The switching systems put into
CCIS6 that connect to STPs are called Serving Offices (SO).

Band Signaling (CCIS-BS) is used on trunk signaling for intertoll-type trunks
using the CCIS network.

Direct Signaling (CCIS-DS) is used for signaling between SPC switching
machines and a Network Control Point (NCP).  At the present time, CCIS6 can
handle Enhanced INWATS Originating Screening Office (OSO), Calling Card
Validation (CCV), Mechanized Calling Card Service (MCCS), and Billed Number
Screening (BNS).  CCIS6 is available with DMS-100/200, DMS-200, and
DMS-100/200 or DMS-200 with TOPS.


CCIS6 Diagram:
                                            NSB        ST
                      ------------         - - - - - - - - - - -
          DTC        |            |      |            -------    |
         - - -  DS30 |    IPML    | DS30 |  - - -    | ||    |   |
--------|     |------|- - - - - - |------|-|     |---| ||    |   |
Digital  - - -       |            |      |  - - -    | ||    |   |
Trunks               |            |      |           | ||    |   |
                     |            |      |            -------    |
                     |            |        - - - - - - -|- - - -
          DTC        |            |          TM         |
  DIG    - - -  DS30 |    NUC     |  DS30   - - -      -----
--------|     |------|- - - - - - |--------|     |----|     |
^        - - -       |Network     |         - - -      -----
CCIS         \        ------------                     Modem
Signaling     \            |
           - - -         -----
AN Links--|     |       | CCC |
           - - -         -----
          Channel
           Bank



Acronyms:

        DIG - Digital
        AN - Analog
        DTC - Digital Trunk Controller
        MSB - Message Switch Buffer
        ST - Signaling Terminal
        TM - Trunk Module
        NUC - Nailed-Up Connection
        IPML - Inter-Peripheral Message Link


Common Channel Interoffice Signaling No. 7
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Common Channel Signaling (CCS) No. 7 or CCIS7 is a CCS system based on CCITT
No. 7.  CCIS7/CCS7 on the DMS switch consists of two parts:  the Message
Transfer Part (MTP) and the Interim Telephone user Part.  They are compatible
with DMS-100, DMS-200, DMS-100/200, and DMS-100/DMS-100/200 with TOPS.

CCIS7 can't tell the difference between banded and direct signaling.  CCIS7
uses Destination/Origination Point Codes (DPC/OPC) to route back to the
switch.

CCIS7 can handle Automatic Calling Card Service (ACCS), Enhanced INWATS, Local
Area Signaling Services, and Direct Service Dialing Capabilities.


Equal Access
~~~~~~~~~~~~
The DMS-200 Access Tandem (AT) gives a traffic concentration and distribution
function for interLATA traffic originating and a distribution function for
interLATA traffic origination or terminating inside a Local Access and
Transport Area (LATA).  This gives the interLATA Carrier (IC) access to more
that one end office inside the LATA.  It can handle InterLATA Carrier access
codes (10xxx), 10xxx and 950-yxxx dialing, Automatic Number Identification
(ANI) on all calls, answer supervision, equal access Automatic Message
Accounting (AMA) for both originating and terminating calls, and operator
service signaling.

The DMS-100 EA gives direct and tandem switched access service inside the LATA
for originating and terminating to interLATA Carriers.  It is available in the
following three ways:

Equal Access End Office (EAEO)
------------------------------
DMS-100 Equal Access End Office (EAEO) gives a direct interconnection to
interLATA Carriers' (IC) and international Carriers' (INC) Points of Presence
(POP) inside the LATA.

Access Tandem with Equal Access End Office
------------------------------------------
The DMS-200 Access Tandem (AT) when used with equal access end office (EAEO)
lets trunk tandem interconnect to ICs/INCs POP inside the LATA.

The connection of the Equal Access End Office (EAEO) to an IC/INC through the
DMS-200 Access Tandem (AT) uses what is called two-stage overlap output
pulsing which makes the time it takes to set up a call quicker.  The AT uses
the digits OZZ + XXX out pulsed  in the first stage to identify the IC/INC
dialed and to pick out outgoing trunk.  Then a connection is established from
the IC/INC to the EAEO through the AT.  The second stage digits consist of ANI
and the called numbers are passed through the DMS-200 AT at the IC/INC.

An AMA terminating record in AT&T format is produced by the DMS-200 for all
the EAEOs.  A per call terminating AMA record is made for calls that get to
the stage where the trunk from the IC/INC has been seized and a "wink" has
been returned by the DMS-200 AT.

Access Tandem with a Non-Equal Access End Office
------------------------------------------------
DMS-200 AT using a non-equal access end office gives trunk tandem connection
to an IC/INC POP within the LATA.  To set up a call, connection of Feature
Group B (FGB) or Feature Group C (FGC) End Office to an IC/INC through the
DMS-200 AT uses the standard Bell Central Automatic Message Accounting (CAMA)
signaling.  The Access Tandem uses the XXX digits of the access code 950-YXXX
out pulsed from the FGB end office to identify the IC/INC and to connect to an
outgoing trunk.


Mechanized Calling Card Service (MCCS)
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The fraudulent use of calling cards, third number and collect calls and the
increasing movement to automate current operator services has directly led to
the implantation of the Mechanized Calling Card Service (MCCS) to DMS-200/TOPS
and to the remote and host Operator Centralization (OC).

MCCS uses CCIS to relay queries and responses to and from the DMS-200/TOPS.
Operator handled calling card calls and the direct entry by subscribers of
Calling Cards by DTMF (Touch-Tone) telephones are given special provisions by
the MCCS.  Both the operator handling and the direct entry of calling card
calls are decreasing the size of the operators.

Billed Number Screening (BNS) gives an enhancement to the operator-handled
collect and third-number billing by using CCIS to screen a number at the
billing validation data base for billing restrictions (i.e. the third number
is a fortress).  This feature naturally will reduce fraudulent use of the
collect call feature.

Common Channel Interoffice Signaling-Direct Signaling (CCIS-DS), which is
the feature that the MCCS is designed around, is used to transmit messages to
and from many possible Billing Validation Centers (BVCs).  Messages
transmitted to the BVC about MCCS include the billing number and the Personal
Identification Number (PIN).  In BNS the messages have the special billing
number (collect or third number).  The return messages from the BVC include
validity (of the number), billing restrictions (if any), and the Revenue
Accounting Office (RAO) code.


Auxiliary Operator Services System
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The DMS-200 Auxiliary Operator Services System (AOSS) is used primarily for
Directory Assistance and the intercept needs that are not included in the TOPS
package.  The AOSS is similar to TOPS and co-exists with TOPS on the DMS-200
Toll system.

Major benefits of the AOSS include:  Directory Assistance is provided with a
modern environment, AOSS position administrative activities are performed by
the DMS-200 toll maintenance system, trunking savings are achieved by
combining trunking for 1+, 0+, and Directory Assistance traffic, DA services
are managed by using TOPS methods, creation of a built-in training system
which does not require additional training equipment and reduces training
costs.


Integrated Business Network
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The Integrated Business Network (IBN) is a revenue-producing concept designed
for small and big businesses to offer modernized PBX and Centrex features.
The Operating Company can use the IBN to maintain and enhance its competitive
position on a operational DMS-100 and DMS 100/200 switches.   While using the
DMS-100 switch, the Operating Company can support varying business features
along with existing local/toll traffic.

IBN services can be introduced to a Centrex-Central Office (CO) or a
Centrex-Customer Unit (CU) by additional software modules and minor hardware
enhancements.

Current IBN features include:  A growing system that can handle 30,000 lines,
networking capabilities, city wide service for DMS-100 switch and remotes for
any one customer Station Message Detail Recording (SMDR), which gives IBN
customers call records.  The records can be used for system analysis and
control and station charge-back.  SMDR can use LAMA records (if the IBN host
has LAMA equipment), centralized attendant maintenance, and administration
functions and Direct Inward Dialing (DID).


Electronic Switched Network (ESN)
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The Electronic Switched Network is designed to meet the telecommunication
needs of large multi-location corporations.  The ESN is made up of a SL-1 or
SL-100 Digital Business Communications System with networking features or a
DMS-100 IBN host.  The SL-1 can handle from 30-5000 lines.  The SL-100 and the
DMS-100 IBN hosts can hold from a few thousands to 30,000 lines.

A DMS-100 IBN or SL-100 can remotely serve many locations from the host site.
This is done by a connection through digital transmission facilities which are
set up at remote modules at the subscriber's premises.

Here are some diagrams showing the differences between normal private
telecommunications networks and ESN networks.

                      Normal telecommunications network
                      =================================

           -----               ------
 [Phone]--| SnS |             | SL-1 |-[Phone]
          | PBX |             | PBX  |
           -----               ------
           |  |DOD/DID   DOD/DID|  |
           |   -------   -------   |
           |Tie       | |       Tie|
           |Trunk  ---------  Trunk|
            ------| Class-5 |------
              ----| Centrex |----
             |     ---------     |
             |                   |
             |                   |
             |                   |
           -----  Tie Trunk  ---------
          | SnS | ----------| Class-5 |
          | PBX |           | Centrex |
           -----             ---------
             |                   |
             |                   |
             |                   |
             |                   |
          -------             ------
 [Phone]-| Small |           | SL-1 |-[Phone]
         |  PBX  |           |      |
          -------             ------


                                  ESN Network
                                  ===========
          --------                               ----------
[phone]--| Remote |                             | SL-1 PBX |--[phone]
         | Module |                             | ESN Main |
          --------                               ----------
              |                                       |
              |  DS-1 Facility                        |  DS-1 Facility
              |            --------------             |
               -------->  | Local Class 5|  <---------
          [phone]---------|    DMS-100   |
                      ----|    IBN/ESN   |-------------
        2W Loop MFIDP |    --------------             | ESN Trunk Group
           or DS-1    |           |                   |     or DS-1
                      |         -----         ---------------
                      |        | CSC |       | Local Class 5 |
                   --------     -----        |    DMS-100    |
                  | SL-100 | <--- DS-1 ----> |    IBN/ESN    |
                   --------     Facility      ---------------
                      |                              |
                      |                              |
                      | DS-1 Facility                | DS-1 Facility
                      |                              |
                   --------                      ----------
         [phone]--| Remote |                    | SL-1 PBX |--[phone]
                  | Module |                    | ESN Main |
                   --------                      ----------




Specialized Common Carrier Service (SCCS)
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The DMS-250 Specialized Common Carrier Service (SCCS) provides the capability
of Analog to Digital (A/D) and Digital to Analog (D/A) conversions which are
necessary with analog circuits.  The DMS-250 can also switch voice and data
circuits.

The DMS-250 takes either analog or digitally encoded info and by using time
slot interchange, switches it from any input port to a temporary addressed and
connected exit port.  The info may or may not be converted back to analog.

Cellular Mobile Radio Service
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
A cellular system consists of two main parts:  a cellular switch and cell site
equipment.


Cellular Switching Systems
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
A cellular switch performs three main functions:  audio switching, cell site
control, and system administration.

The DMS switches provide three basic implementations for cellular switching:
Stand-alone, Combined, and Remote.

Stand-alone switching is done by a Mobile Telephone Exchange (MTX) which is
interfaced with one or more class 5 end offices.  The connection is made by
DID/DOD trunks.  Depending on the needs of the area, the MTX can be divided as
follows:  MTX which serves urban areas, MTXC which handles suburban areas, and
MTXM which is used for rural areas.

Combined switching is incorporated into a DMS-100 by some hardware additions
and cellular software.  Combined switching is designed to give an easy,
cost-effective way to install cellular services to an existing host.

Remote Switching is done by combining Remote Switching Center (RSC) with a
Cell Site Controller (CSC).  This combination is hosted by either a
stand-alone or a combined switch.  Remote Switching is designed for serving
suburban centers, remote areas, or a small community and it gives extra
flexibility for a growing system.

All of these cellular switches have the ability to balance the workload among
various cell sites.  For example, if one site's workload reaches the
programmable level of congestion, calls would be routed to nearby sites that
can handle the extra calls.


Cell Site Equipment
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Cell site equipment consists of a CSC and radio equipment.  The CSC is
controlled by the cellular switch and it controls radio equipment and
maintenance tasks.  The CSC will work on any MTX cellular switch because of
the Remote Cluster Controller (RCC).

The radio equipment consists of self-contained Radio Channel Units (RCU),
antennas, transmitter multi-couplers, and receiver combiners.

By different program software, an RCU can perform voice, control locating, and
test functions.  The self contained nature allows the RCU be remotely located
to the CSC.  A RCU has built-in circuitry for extended testing of the radio
part of the system.


                                  Control C

<End of File>
  <May 1987>
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