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..[ Phrack Magazine ]..
.:: Low Cost and Portable GPS Jammer ::.

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Current issue : #60 | Release date : 2002-12-28 | Editor : Phrack Staff
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Low Cost and Portable GPS Jammeranonymous author
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Title : Low Cost and Portable GPS Jammer
Author : anonymous author
                             ==Phrack Inc.==

               Volume 0x0b, Issue 0x3c, Phile #0x0d of 0x10

|=-----------------=[ Low Cost and Portable GPS Jammer ]=----------------=|
|=-----------------------------------------------------------------------=|
|=---------------=[ anonymous <p60_0d@author.phrack.org ]=---------------=|

--[ Contents

  1 - Project Overview

  2 - Why?

  3 - Technical Description
    3.1 - Phase Locked Loop
    3.2 - Noise Generator
    3.3 - RF Amplifiers
    3.4 - Voltage Regulation
    3.5 - Antenna

  4 - Construction Notes
    4.1 - Component Purchasing
    4.2 - Layout

  5 - Operation

  6 - References

  Appendix A: Links to Datasheets

  Appendix B: Schematic Diagram - gps_jammer.ps.gz (uuencoded)


--[ 1 - Project Overview
 
  A low cost device to temporarily disable the reception of the civilian
course acquisition (C/A) code used for the standard positioning service
(SPS)[1] on the Global Positioning System (GPS/NAVSTAR) L1 frequency of
1575.42 MHz.

  This is accomplished by transmitting a narrowband Gaussian noise signal,
with a deviation of +/- 1.023 MHz, on the L1 GPS frequency itself.  This
technique is a little more complicated than a simple continuous wave (CW)
jammer, but tends to be more effective (i.e. harder to filter) against
spread spectrum based radio receivers.

  This device will have no effect on the precise positioning service (PPS)
which is transmitted on the GPS L2 frequency of 1227.6 MHz and little
effect on the P-code which is also carried on the L1 frequency.  There may
be a problem if your particular GPS receiver needs to acquire the P(Y)-code
through the C/A-code before proper operation.

  This device will also not work against the new upcoming GPS L5 frequency
of 1176.45 MHz or the Russian GLONASS or European Galileo systems.  It can
be adapted to jam the new civilian C/A-code signal which is going to also
be transmitted on the GPS L2 frequency.

  That said, it will work against the majority of consumer/OEM GPS
receivers, provided they are not setup in any advanced anti-jam
configuration.

---[ 2 - Why?

  The onslaught of cheap GPS based navigation (or hidden tracking devices)
over the past few years has made it necessary for the typical citizen to
take up the fine art of electronic warfare.

  Several companies[2] now sell "hidden" GPS based tracking devices which
mount inside or underneath your vehicle.  Some transmit the coordinates,
via cellular phone, of your vehicle's present and/or past locations for
weeks at a time without battery changes or court orders!

  Vehicle rental companies have been known to use GPS tracking devices to
verify you don't speed or abuse their rental vehicles.  The unsuspecting
renter is often faced with these hidden abuse "fees" after returning the
rental vehicle.

  Law enforcement agencies are dumb enough to keep track of house arrest
prisoners with simple GPS based tracking bracelets[3].  Some even use GPS
for automatic vehicle location (AVL) on their squad cars to allow the
dispatchers to send in the closest unit to a particular call or to know an
officer's location in case of an emergency situation where they can't use
their radio.

  Cellular phone companies, trucking companies, private investigators,
toll-roads, aircraft, those "protect your child" systems and many more
services are all fully involved with the use of GPS based tracking.  The
problem is, do you really want everyone to know where you are?

---[ 3 - Technical Description

  This will be a brief description of each of the major sections which
compromise the entire jammer device.  Refer to the included schematic
diagram (Appendix B) as you read along.  You should also refer to the
component's datasheets for even more detailed information.

---[ 3.1 - Phase Locked Loop

  The jammer's main oscillator components consist of a Motorola MC145151
phase-locked loop (PLL) frequency synthesizer chip, a Micronetics M3500-
1324S voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) module and a Fijitsu MB506 divide
-by-256 prescaler chip.

  The VCO feeds a portion of its radio frequency (RF) output signal into
the prescaler chip, where it is divided by 256.  A 1575 MHz signal would be
turned into a 6.15234375 MHz signal.  This is then fed into one side of the
PLL chip.

  The other side of the PLL is fed with a reference frequency which is
derived from a 10 MHz quartz crystal.  This crystal reference frequency is
divided down 512 times by the PLL to reach 19531.25 Hz.  The 6.15234375
MHz prescaler output frequency is also further divided down 315 times by
the PLL chip for a final frequency of 19531.25 Hz.  This will be the new
PLL internal reference frequency.  That big bad 1575 MHz microwave signal
now looks like a simple audio frequency to the PLL chip and the supporting
components.

  The PLL chip internally compares the phase of the 19531.25 Hz VCO side
signal to the phase of the 19531.25 Hz crystal side signal.  The PLL chip
outputs high or low voltage pulses depending on whether the crystal signal
is leading or lagging in phase with the VCO signal.  These pulses are then
filtered and dampened into a pure DC control signal via a simple passive
loop filter.  This cleaned up signal is then connected to the VCO's voltage
tune control input.

  When everything is working properly, the VCO's output frequency is locked
to whatever frequency you programmed into the PLL chip, 1575 MHz in this
case.  It will stay on that frequency even through dramatic temperature
changes, a problem that a non-PLL VCO would have.  If the PLL is not
working properly, the red "PLL Unlock" LED will be lit.

  Due to a quirk with using low cost, easy to obtain components, you'll
need to tweak two loading capacitors on the reference crystal.  This is
unusual, but necessary to move the signal from the default 1575 MHz to
the more appropriate 1575.42 MHz (+/- a few hundred Hertz).  This is a very
important and delicate procedure, and you'll need a frequency counter to
accomplish it.

---[ 3.2 - Noise Generator

  The actual noise generator of the jammer is very simple.  A 6.8 Volt
Zener diode is first biased, buffered and amplified by a single 2N3904
transistor.  This single Zener diode is capable of generating broadband
noise signals from audio frequencies up to over 100 MHz.  We then filter
this noise signal down to something more practical and something which the
VCO module can actually respond too.  This is done via the LM386 audio
amplifier chip.  The LM386 both amplifies and low pass filters the final
noise signal.  The final LM386 output signal will have enough overhead if
you need to adapt it for a wideband noise jammer.

  This low frequency noise signal is fed, via a 100 Ohm potentiometer, to
a simple resistor/capacitor network where it's mixed with the VCO voltage
tune control signal (described above).  The single 1N4148 diode is to
prevent any negative voltage pulses from reaching the VCO.

  This mixing results in a new "noisy" voltage tune control signal feeding
the VCO.  The resulting RF signal looks like random noise dancing around
the center 1575.42 MHz RF carrier.  You'll need to set the deviation of
this noise to approximately +/- 1.023 MHz from the 1575.42 MHz RF carrier.
Access to a spectrum analyzer is required to do this properly, or you can
use an oscilloscope and the included test point voltages to get an
approximate setup.

---[ 3.3 - RF Amplifiers

  The VCO's +7 dBm (5 milliwatts) RF output is first slightly attenuated
(4 dB) and tapped for the MB506 prescaler input.  It then passes through to
the RF amplifier stages and band pass filter.

  The first RF amplifier is a Sirenza Microdevices SGA-6289.  It provides
about 13 dB of gain to overcome the losses from the resistive attenuation
pad.  It also shows a good 50 Ohm termination for the VCO RF output and
even helps to drive the final RF amplifier.

  The GPS band pass filter is a 2-pole Toko 4DFA-1575B-12 ceramic
dielectric filter from Digi-Key[4], part number TKS2609CT-ND.  This part is
optional, but helps clean up the RF spectrum before further amplification.
The filter's insertion loss is around 2 dB.

  The final RF amplifier is a WJ Communications AH102.  It provides another
13 dB of gain, with a higher P1dB compression point of around +27 dBm (500
mW).  The AH102 draws the most current of any part, and is not really
necessary if you're aiming for a low range, low current, battery operated
device.

---[ 3.4 - Voltage Regulation

  Voltage input regulation and filtering is done using standard voltage
regulator ICs.  A LM2940CT-12 12 Volt, 1 Amp low dropout voltage regulator
is used to regulate the main 12 Volt power line.  Standard 78xx series
regulators are used from there on to provide both the 9 and 5 Volt lines.
A simple diode/fuse polarity protection scheme is also provided on the
battery input.  The use of an automatic reset fuse is highly recommended.

  You can power the jammer off a common 12 Volt rechargeable battery.
The 12 Volt, 4.5 Amp-hour, lead-acid battery from Radio Shack[5], part
number 23-289, is a good choice.  Old car batteries, strings of 6 Volt
lantern batteries or even solar panels will also work.  Current draw for
the completed jammer will be around 300 milliamps.

---[ 3.5 - Antenna

  A radiating antenna is not shown in the schematic diagram and one will
need to be purchased or constructed for proper operation.  There are
numerous commercial GPS receiving antennas which will work fine for this
low power transmitting application.  Some of the best pre-made or easily
assembled microwave antennas can be purchased directly from Ramsey
Electronics[6].

  The Ramsey DA25 broadband discone antenna is recommended for omni-
directional (transmit in a circle) radiating applications.  The LPY2 log
periodic Yagi antenna can be used for directional (transmit in a straight
line) radiating applications.  Using a directional antenna will give you a
slight increase in overall transmitted RF power, which increases the
jammer's range, and can also be used to shield your own GPS receiver from
being jammed (i.e. point it at the enemy).

  Dielectric GPS patch antenna elements may also be purchased from Digi-
Key.  Toko DAK series elements, Digi-Key part number TK5150-ND, are perfect
for surface mounting directly to the circuit board.  They will require a
plastic radome to slightly lower their resonant frequency.  The small
antenna element size is also perfect for hidden or portable operations.

---[ 4 - Construction Notes

  Unfortunately, proper jammer construction will require fairly advanced
engineering skills.  Prior knowledge of high frequency microwave circuits
and printed circuit board (PCB) design is required.  A good start for the
beginner is by reading the "UHF/Microwave Handbook" and "The ARRL Handbook"
both published by the Amateur Radio Relay League (ARRL)[7].  Access to
fundamental RF test equipment (oscilloscope, frequency counter, spectrum
analyzer, loads, attenuators, etc.) is also required.

---[ 4.1 - Component Purchasing

  The main VCO module and RF amplifiers can be purchased from Richardson
Electronics[8].  Part number M3500C-1324S for the VCO module and part
numbers SGA-6289 and AH102 for the RF amplifiers.  Equivalent VCO and RF
amplifiers can be purchased from companies such as Mini-Circuits[9] or
Synergy Microwave[10].  Slight component changes may be required if using
alternate components to take into account different operating voltages and
input/output RF power requirements.  The PLL loop filter may also need
tweaking if you use a different VCO module.

  The MC145151 PLL synthesizer chip can be purchased from Digi-Key.  There
are several pin packages available (leaded or surface mount), choose the
one suitable for your application.  The small 28-SOIC surface mount package
is part number MC145151DW2-ND.  You may also be able to salvage MC145151
chips from older CB radios or older C-band satellite receivers (the kind
that where tuned via DIP switches).

  Digi-Key also handles an equivalent prescaler IC, the NEC UPG1507GV, part
number UPB1507GV-ND.  This is an exact replacement for the Fijitsu MB506,
but the main drawback to the UPG1507GV is that it is in a 8-SSOP package
(i.e. very small) and is fairly difficult to work with using standard
soldering tools.

  The 10 MHz crystal is also available from Digi-Key, part number
300-6121-1-ND.  Other miscellaneous components may also be purchased from
Digi-Key (capacitors, resistors, voltage regulators, inductors,
diodes, transistors, LM386, project box, RF connectors, etc.) as their
prices are the most competitive and their service is outstanding.

---[ 4.2 - Layout

  No PCB pattern is available, you'll have to layout the project by hand
using felt-tip markers, drafting tape, dry-etch or iron-on transfers.  You
should make your own PCB pattern to fit your application specifically.

  The PCB layout isn't that difficult or challenging, but will require
prior experience and patience.  Using all surface mount components and good
board layout practices will reduce the jammer's physical size and cost
tremendously.

  The use of high frequency, double sided copper clad laminate is essential
for properly working microwave circuits.  GIL Technologies[11] GML1000
(2-side, 1 oz., 0.030") is a good choice but standard FR-4 laminate will
work in a pinch.  You can purchase 6" x 6" FR-4 (2-side, 1 oz., 0.030")
laminate from Digi-Key, part number PC45-S-ND.

  A 50 Ohm micro stripline on 0.030" GML1000 PCB laminate will be about 70
mils (1.8 mm) wide and on FR-4 it will be about 55 mils (1.5 mm) wide.  Be
sure to keep any micro stripline carrying RF signals short, straight and
perpendicular to any DC bias line or any other micro stripline it has to
cross.
  
  The 2 mm wide line in the dry-etch transfer package from Radio Shack,
part number 276-1490, will work O.K. on both materials for creating
homebrew micro striplines which are close enough to 50 Ohms.

  The two RF amplifiers, band pass filter, VCO and prescaler PCB patterns
will all require numerous ground vias connecting the top and bottom ground
planes.  These help prevent ground loops and instability (oscillations)
from disrupting proper circuit operation.  In the case of the AH102, they
even provide some heat sinking to allow cooler operation of the final RF
amplifier.

  Any resistors, capacitors or inductors used in the RF sections should be
in a 0603, 0805 or 1206 size surface mount package.  Leaded components will
not work at this high of a frequency.  Be sure your choice of surface mount
inductors can handle the current when used as part of the DC bias on the
RF amplifiers.  The ferrite bead shown in the schematic can be any salvaged
ferrite bead.  The inductor assortment package at Radio Shack, part number
273-1601 should have a couple of them in it.

--[ 5 - Operation

  Once the jammer is operational, you can practice testing it by monitoring
the signal on a common consumer GPS receiver or high quality communications
receiver.  A GPS receiver close to the jammer will not be able to acquire
C/A-code lock and any operating GPS in the jammer's radiation pattern will
lose C/A-code lock.  Higher quality GPS receivers tend to be less
susceptible to low power jamming, so you'll need to be in the antenna's
near-field radiation pattern (i.e. close) for it to work.

  Any obstructions near the jammer's own antenna (trees, houses, hills,
walls, etc.) will decrease the jamming range.  The best placement is where
the jammer's antenna is line-of-sight to the antenna of the GPS receiver
you're trying to jam.  Real world results will vary drastically, but you
should be able to obtain a jam radius of a few hundred feet even in heavily
obstructed areas with the higher power (AH102) option and a simple antenna.

  You can even practice counter-jamming methods to protect yourself against
hostile or accidental GPS jamming.  Try to shield your GPS receiver from
the interference source by placing your body, trees, hills, rocks or other
obstructions in-between your position and the interference.  More advanced
methods involve using directional or steerable phased-array antennas on
your GPS receiver (pointed skyward) to nullify any ground based
interference.

--[ 6 - References

[1] Standard Positioning Service (SPS) Signal Specification
    http://www.spacecom.af.mil/usspace/gps_support/gps_documentation.htm

[2] GPS-Web
    http://www.gps-web.com

    Travel Eyes 2
    http://www.spyyard.com/details_traveleyes2.htm

[3] VeriTrack
    http://www.veridian.com/offerings/suboffering.asp?offeringID=472

    iSECUREtrac
    http://www.isecuretrac.com

    Pro Tech Monitoring
    http://www.ptm.com

[4] Digi-Key
    http://www.digikey.com

[5] Radio Shack
    http://www.radioshack.com

[6] Ramsey Electronics
    http://www.ramseyelectronics.com

[7] Amateur Radio Relay League
    http://www.arrl.org

[8] Richardson Electronics
    http://www.rell.com

[9] Mini-Circuits
    http://www.minicircuits.com

[10] Synergy Microwave
     http://www.synergymwave.com

[11] GIL Technologies
     http://www.gilam.com

[12] Xcircuit
     http://xcircuit.ece.jhu.edu

--[ Appendix A: Links to Datasheets

Alternate component manufactures may be substituted in most cases.

* Fairchild Semiconductor 2N3904 NPN Transistor
  http://www.fairchildsemi.com/ds/2N/2N3904.pdf

* Micronetics M3500-1324S VCO
  http://www.micronetics.com/pdf/vco1324.pdf

* Motorola MC145151 PLL Frequency Synthesizer
  http://e-www.motorola.com/brdata/PDFDB/docs/MC145151-2.pdf

* National LM2940-12 Voltage Regulator
  http://www.national.com/ds/LM/LM2940.pdf

* National LM386 Audio Amplifier
  http://www.national.com/ds/LM/LM386.pdf

* National LM78L05 Voltage Regulator
  http://www.national.com/ds/LM/LM78L05.pdf

* NEC UPB1506/07GV Prescaler
  http://www.cel.com/pdf/datasheets/upb1506.pdf

* Sirenza Microdevices SGA-6289 RF Amplifier
  http://www.sirenza.com/pdf/datasheets/sga/89/sga-6289.pdf

* STMicroelectronics 78M09 Voltage Regulator
  http://eu.st.com/stonline/books/pdf/docs/2146.pdf

* Toko DAK1575MS50T Dielectric Antenna
  http://www.toko.com/passives/antennas/pdf/DAK1575MS50Tws.pdf

* Toko 4DFA-1575B-12 Dielectric Band Pass Filter
  http://www.toko.com/passives/filters/dielectric/4dfa.html

* WJ Communications AH102 RF Amplifier
  http://www.wj.com/pdf/AH102.pdf

--[ Appendix B: Schematic Diagram - gps_jammer.ps.gz (uuencoded)

  Below is the schematic diagram (gps_jammer.ps) in an uuencoded gzipped
PostScript file.  This is the native Xcircuit[12] format and is used for
ease of viewing, printing and modification.

<++> ./gps_jammer.ps.gz.uue

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`
end

<--> ./gps_jammer.ps.gz.uue

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