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..[ Phrack Magazine ]..
.:: Users Guide to VAX/VMS Part 3 of 3 ::.

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Current issue : #38 | Release date : 1992-04-26 | Editor : Dispater
IntroductionDispater
Phrack LoopbackDispater & Phrack Staff
Phrack Pro-Phile on AristotleAristotle
Pirates' CoveRambone
Network Miscellany IVDatastream Cowboy
Beating The Radar Rap Part 2 of 2Dispater
Users Guide to VAX/VMS Part 3 of 3Black Kat
Wide Area Information ServicesMycroft
Cellular TelephonyBrian Oblivion
Standing Up To Fight The BellsKnight Lightning
The Digital Telephony ProposalFBI
PWN Special Report VI on CFP-2Max Nomad
PWN/Part 1Datastream Cowboy
PWN/Part 2Datastream Cowboy
PWN/Part 3Datastream Cowboy
Title : Users Guide to VAX/VMS Part 3 of 3
Author : Black Kat
                               == Phrack Inc. ==

                 Volume Four, Issue Thirty-Eight, File 7 of 15

      <:=--=:><:=--=:><:=--=:><:=--=:>\|/<:=--=:><:=--=:><:=--=:><:=--=:>
      <:=--=:>                                                   <:=--=:>
      <:=--=:>    >>>>>=-*  Users Guide to VAX/VMS  *-=<<<<<     <:=--=:>
      <:=--=:>                                                   <:=--=:>
      <:=--=:>                  Part III of III                  <:=--=:>
      <:=--=:>                                                   <:=--=:>
      <:=--=:>           Part E: DCL Command Reference           <:=--=:>
      <:=--=:>         Part F: Lexical Function Reference        <:=--=:>
      <:=--=:>                                                   <:=--=:>
      <:=--=:>                    By Black Kat                   <:=--=:>
      <:=--=:>                                                   <:=--=:>
      <:=--=:><:=--=:><:=--=:><:=--=:>/|\<:=--=:><:=--=:><:=--=:><:=--=:>


 Index
 ~~~~~
Part E contains information on DCL Command Reference
Part F contains information on Lexical Function Reference


                    <:=- Part E : DCL Command Reference -=:>


 DCL Command Reference
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
@ file_spec [p1 p2...p8]
  Executes a DCL command procedure.

  Qualifier:
  /OUTPUT=file_spec


ACCOUNTING file_spec[,...]
  Invokes the VAX/VMS Accounting Utility to collect and report accounting
  information.

  Qualifiers:
  /ACCOUNT     /ADDRESS          /BEFORE        /BINARY       /ENTRY
  /FULL        /IDENTIFICATION   /IMAGE         /JOB          /LOG
  /NODE        /OUTPUT           /OWNER         /PRIORITY     /PROCESS
  /QUEUE       /REJECTED         /REMOTE_ID     /REPORT       /SINCE
  /SORT        /STATUS           /SUMMARY       /TERMINAL     /TITLE
  /TYPE        /UIC              /USER


ALLOCATE device_name: [logical_name]
  Provides exclusive use of a device and, optionally, establishes a logical
  name for that device.  While a device is allocated, other users may access
  the device until you DEALLOCATE it or log out.

  Qualifier:
  /GENERIC


ANALYZE
  Invokes various VAX/VMS utilities to examine components of the system.  The
  default function is to examine a module (ANALYZE/OBJECT).

  Qualifiers:
  /CRASH_DUMP   /DISK_STRUCTURE      /ERROR_LOG      /IMAGE
  /MEDIA        /OBJECT              /PROCESS_DUMP   /RMS_FILE
  /SYSTEM


APPEND input_file_spec[,...] output_file_spec
  Adds the contents of one or more input files to the end of a file.

  Qualifiers:
  /ALLOCATION    /BACKUP       /BEFORE         /BY_OWNER       /CONFIRM
  /CONTIGUOUS    /CREATED      /EXCLUDE        /EXPIRED        /EXTENSION
  /LOG           /MODIFIED     /NEW_VERSION    /READ_CHECK     /SINCE
  /WRITE_CHECK


ASSIGN
  Equates a logical name to a physical device name, file specification or
  another logical name.


ASSIGN/MERGE
  Merges the contents of one queue with another.


ASSIGN/QUEUE
  Assigns a logical queue to a device queue.


ATTACH [process_name]
  Enables you to transfer control from the current process to another process
  created by you (see SPAWN).

  Qualifier:
  /IDENTIFICATION


BACKUP input_spec output_spec
  Invokes the VAX/VMS Backup Utility to perform one of the following file
  operations:
  o  Copy disk files.
  o  Save disk files as a save set (a single data file) on a disk or
     magnetic tape volume.
  o  Restore files from a save set.
  o  Compare files.
  o  Display information about files contained in a save set.

  Qualifiers:
  /BACKUP          /BEFORE         /BLOCK_SIZE     /BRIEF
  /BUFFER_COUNT    /COMMENT        /COMPARE        /CONFIRM
  /CRC             /CREATED        /DELETE         /DENSITY
  /EXCLUDE         /EXPIRED        /FAST           /FULL
  /GROUP_SIZE      /IGNORE         /IMAGE          /INCREMENTAL
  /INITIALIZE      /INTERCHANGE    /JOURNAL        /LABEL
  /LIST            /LOG            /MODIFIED       /NEW_VERSION
  /OVERLAY         /OWNER_UIC      /PHYSICAL       /PROTECTION
  /RECORD          /REPLACE        /REWIND         /SAVE_SET
  /SELECT          /SINCE          /TRUNCATE       /VERIFY
  /VOLUME


CALL label [p1 p2...p8]
  Transfers command procedure control to a labeled subroutine in the procedure.

  Qualifier:
  /OUTPUT


CANCEL [process_name]
  Cancels a scheduled wake_up request for the specified process.

  Qualifier:
  /IDENTIFICATION


CLOSE logical_name
  Closes a file opened for input/output with the OPEN command, and deassigns
  the logical name created for the file.

  Qualifiers:
  /ERROR        /LOG


CONNECT virtual_terminal_name
  Connects a physical terminal to a virtual terminal connected to another
  process.

  Qualifiers:
  /CONTINUE     /LOGOUT


CONTINUE
  Resumes execution of a DCL command, program or command procedure
  interrupted by pressing <Ctrl-Y> or <Ctrl-C>.  You can abbreviate the
  CONTINUE command to the letter C.


COPY input_file_spec[,...] output_file_spec
  Creates a new file from one or more existing files.  The COPY command can be
  used to:
  o  Copy an input file to an output file, optionally changing its name and
     location.
  o  Copy a group of input files to a group of output files.
  o  Concatenate two or more files into a single new file.

  Qualifiers:
  /ALLOCATION     /BACKUP        /BEFORE       /BY_OWNER     /CONCATENATE
  /CONFIRM        /CONTIGUOUS    /CREATED      /EXCLUDE      /EXPIRED
  /EXTENSION      /LOG           /MODIFIED     /OVERLAY      /PROTECTION
  /READ_CHECK     /REPLACE       /SINCE        /TRUNCATE     /VOLUME
  /WRITE_CHECK


CREATE file_spec
  Creates one or more sequential disk files from records that follow in the
  input stream (i.e., the keyboard, a modem...).  To terminate input and close
  the file, enter <Ctrl-Z>.

  Qualifiers:
  /LOG          /OWNER_UIC      /PROTECTION     /VOLUME


CREATE/DIRECTORY directory_spec[,...]
  Creates a new directory or subdirectory for cataloging files.

  Qualifiers:
  /LOG      /OWNER_UIC     /PROTECTION     /VERSION_LIMIT    /VOLUME


CREATE/FDL=fdl_file_spec [file_spec]
  Invokes the FDL (File Definition Language) Utility to use the
  specifications in a definition file to create a new (empty) data file.

  Qualifier:
  /LOG


DEALLOCATE device_name:
  Releases a previously allocated device to the pool of available devices.

  Qualifiers:
  /ALL


DEASSIGN logical_name[:]
  Deletes logical name assignments made with the ALLOCATE, ASSIGN, DEFINE, or
  MOUNT command.

  Qualifiers:
  /ALL          /EXECUTE_MODE           /GROUP          /JOB
  /PROCESS      /SUPERVISOR_MODE        /SYSTEM         /TABLE
  /USER_MODE


DEASSIGN/QUEUE logical_queue_name[:]
  Deassigns a logical queue from its printer or terminal queue assignment and
  stops the associated logical queue.


DEBUG
  Invokes the VAX/VMS Debugger.


DEFINE logical_name equivalence_name[,...]
  Creates a logical name entry and assigns it an equivalence string, or a list
  of equivalence strings, to the specified logical name.

  Qualifiers:
  /EXECUTIVE_MODE             /GROUP                /JOB
  /LOG                        /NAME_ATTRIBUTES      /PROCESS
  /SUPERVISOR_MODE            /SYSTEM               /TABLE
  /TRANSLATION_ATTRIBUTES     /USER_MODE            /CHARACTERISTIC
  /FORM                       /KEY


DEFINE/KEY key_name string
  Associates a character string and a set of attributes with a function key.

  Qualifiers:
  /ECHO         /ERASE          /IF_STATE       /LOCK_STATE     /LOG
  /SET_STATE    /TERMINATE


DELETE file_spec[,...]
  Deletes one or more files from a mass device.

  Qualifiers:
  /BACKUP     /BEFORE      /BY_OWNER     /CONFIRM    /CREATED
  /ERASE      /EXCLUDE     /EXPIRED      /LOG        /MODIFIED
  /SINCE


DELETE/CHARACTERISTIC characteristic_name
  Deletes the definition of a queue characteristic that previously was
  established with the DEFINE/CHARACTERISTIC command.


DELETE/ENTRY=(queue_entry_number[,...]) queue_name[:]
  Deletes one or more job entries from the named queue.


DELETE/KEY key_name
  Deletes a key definition established by the DEFINE/KEY command.

  Qualifiers:
  /ALL        /LOG        /STATE


DELETE/QUEUE queue_name[:]
  Deletes the specified queue from the system.


DELETE/SYMBOL symbol_name
  Removes a symbol definition from a local or global symbol table or removes
  all symbol definitions in a symbol table.

  Qualifiers:
  /ALL       /GLOBAL       /LOCAL        /LOG


DEPOSIT location=data[,...]
  Over-writes the contents of a specified location or series of locations in
  virtual memory.  The DEPOSIT and EXAMINE commands are used (mostly) while
  debugging programs interactively.

  Qualifiers:
  /ASCII        /BYTE     /DECIMAL      /HEXADECIMAL
  /LONGWORD     /OCTAL    /WORD


DIFFERENCES master_file_spec [revision_file_spec]
  Compares the contents of two disk files and creates a listing of those
  records that do not match.

  Qualifiers:
  /CHANGE_BAR   /COMMENT_DELIMITER      /IGNORE
  /MATCH        /MAXIMUM_DIFFERENCES    /MERGED
  /MODE         /NUMBER                 /OUTPUT
  /PARALLEL     /SEPARATED              /SLP
  /WIDTH        /WINDOW


DIRECTORY [file_spec[,...]]
  Provides a list of files or information about a file or group of files.

  Qualifiers:
  /ACL          /BACKUP     /BEFORE         /BRIEF         /BY_OWNER
  /COLUMNS      /CREATED    /DATE           /EXCLUDE       /EXPIRED
  /FILE_ID      /FULL       /GRAND_TOTAL    /HEADING       /MODIFIED
  /OUTPUT       /OWNER      /PRINTER        /PROTECTION    /SECURITY
  /SELECT       /SINCE      /SIZE           /TOTAL         /TRAILING
  /VERSIONS     /WIDTH


DISCONNECT
  Disconnects a physical terminal from a virtual terminal that has been
  connected to a process.  The virtual terminal, and its associated process
  will remain on the system when the physical terminal is disconnected from it.

  Qualifier:
  /CONTINUE


DISMOUNT device_name[:]
  Dismounts a disk or magnetic tape volume that previously was mounted with a
  MOUNT command.

  Qualifiers:
  /ABORT      /CLUSTER      /UNIT     /UNLOAD


DUMP file_spec[,...]
  Displays the contents of files or volumes in ASCII, decimal, hexadecimal or
  octal representation.

  Qualifiers:
  /ALLOCATED     /BLOCKS     /BYTE           /DECIMAL      /FILE_HEADER
  /FORMATTED     /HEADER     /HEXADECIMAL    /LONGWORD     /NUMBER
  /OCTAL         /OUTPUT     /PRINTER        /RECORDS      /WORD


EDIT/ACL file_spec
  Invokes the Access Control List Editor to create or update access control
  list information for a specified object.

  Qualifiers:
  /JOURNAL      /KEEP     /MODE      /OBJECT     /RECOVER


EDIT/EDT file_spec
  Invokes the VAX/VMS EDT text editor.  The /EDT qualifier is not required, as
  EDT is the default editor.

  Qualifiers:
  /COMMAND      /CREATE      /JOURNAL     /OUTPUT     /READ_ONLY
  /RECOVER


EDIT/FDL file_spec
  Invokes the VAX/VMS FDL (File Definition Language) Editor to create or modify
  File and FDL files.

  Qualifiers:
  /ANALYSIS       /CREATE           /DISPLAY        /EMPHASIS
  /GRANULARITY    /NOINTERACTIVE    /NUMBER_KEYS    /OUTPUT
  /PROMPTING      /RESPONSES        /SCRIPT


EDIT/TPU file_spec
  Invokes the VAX/VMS Text Processing Utility.  The EVE (Extensible VAX Editor)
  is the default interface for TPU.  To invoke TPU with the EDT emulator
  interface, define the logical TPUSECII to point to the section file for the
  EDT interface as follows:
  $ DEFINE  TPUSECINI  EDTSECINI

  Qualifiers:
  /COMMAND      /CREATE         /DISPLAY        /JOURNAL
  /OUTPUT       /READ_ONLY      /RECOVER        /SECTION


EOD
  Signals the end of an input stream when a command, program or utility is
  reading data from an input device other than a terminal.


EXAMINE location[:location]
  Displays the contents of virtual memory.

  Qualifiers:
  /ASCII        /BYTE        /DECIMAL       /HEXADECIMAL
  /LONGWORD     /OCTAL       /WORD


EXIT [status_code]
  Terminates the current command procedure.  If the command procedure was
  executed from within another command procedure, control will return to the
  calling procedure.


GOSUB label
  Transfers command procedure control to a labeled subroutine.


GOTO label
  Transfers control to a labeled statement in a command procedure.


HELP
  Invokes the VAX/VMS Help Utility to display information about a VMS command
  or topic.

  Qualifiers:
  /INSTRUCTIONS         /LIBLIST        /LIBRARY        /OUTPUT
  /PAGE                 /PROMPT         /USERLIBRARY


IF logical_expression THEN dcl_command
  Tests the value of a logical expression and executes the command following
  the THEN keyword if the test is true.


INITIALIZE device_name[:] volume_label
  Formats and writes a label on a mass storage volume.

  Qualifiers:
  /ACCESSED             /BADBLOCKS      /CLUSTER_SIZE     /DATA_CHECK
  /DENSITY              /DIRECTORIES    /ERASE            /EXTENSION
  /FILE_PROTECTION      /GROUP          /HEADERS          /HIGHWATER
  /INDEX                /LABEL          /MAXIMUM_FILES    /OVERRIDE
  /OWNER_UC             /PROTECTION     /SHARE            /STRUCTURE
  /SYSTEM               /USER_NAME      /VERIFIED         /WINDOWS


INITIALIZE/QUEUE queue_name[:]
  Creates and initializes queues.  This command is used to create and assign
  names and attributes to queues.  When creating a batch queue, the qualifier
  /BATCH is required.

  Qualifiers:
  /BASE_PRIORITY      /BATCH              /BLOCK_LMIT     /CHARACTERISTICS
  /CPUDEFAULT         /CPUMAXIMUM         /DEFAULT        /DISABLE_SWAPPING
  /ENABLE_GENERIC     /FORM_MOUNTED       /GENERIC        /JOB_LIMIT
  /LIBRARY            /ON                 /OWNER_UIC      /PROCESSOR
  /PROTECTION         /RECORD_BLOCKING    /RETAIN         /SCHEDULE
  /SEPARATE           /START              /TERMINAL       /WSDEFAULT
  /WSEXTENT           /WSQUOTA


INQUIRE symbol_name [prompt]
  Provides interactive assignment of a value for a local or global symbol in a
  command procedure.

  Qualifiers:
  /GLOBAL         /LOCAL        /PUNCTUATION


LIBRARY library_file_spec [input_file_spec[,...]]
  Invokes the VAX/VMS Librarian Utility to create, modify, or describe a macro,
  object, help, text or shareable image library.

  Qualifiers:
  /BEFORE       /COMPRESS               /CREATE         /CROSS_REFERENCE
  /DATA         /DELETE                 /EXTRACT        /FULL
  /GLOBALS      /HELP                   /HISTORY        /INSERT
  /LIST         /LOG                    /MACRO          /NAMES
  /OBJECT       /ONLY                   /OUTPUT         /REMOVE
  /REPLACE      /SELECTIVE_SEARCH       /SHARE          /SINCE
  /SQUEEZE      /TEXT                   /WIDTH          /MODULE


LINK file_spec[,...]
  Invokes the VAX/VMS Linker to link object modules into a VMS program image.

  Qualifiers:
  /BRIEF                /CONTIGUOUS     /CROSS_REFERENCE        /DEBUG
  /EXECUTABLE           /FULL           /HEADER                 /MAP
  /IMAGE                /PROTECT        /SHAREABLE              /SYMBOL_TABLE
  /SYSLIB               /SYSSHR         /SYSTEM                 /TRACEBACK
  /USERLIBRARY          /INCLUDE        /LIBRARY                /OPTIONS
  /SELECTIVE_SEARCH     /SHAREABLE


LOGOUT
  Terminates an interactive terminal session with VMS.

  Qualifiers:
  /BRIEF       /FULL       /HANGUP


MACRO file_spec[,...]
  Invokes the VAX/VMS MACRO assembler to assemble MACRO assembly language
  source programs.

  Qualifiers:
  /CROSS_REFERENCE      /DEBUG          /DISABLE        /ENABLE
  /LIBRARY              /LIST           /OBJECT         /SHOW
  /UPDATE


MAIL [file_spec] [recipient_name]
  Invokes the VAX/VMS Personal Mail Utility, which is used to send messages to,
  and receive messages from, other users of the system.

  Qualifiers:
  /SUBJECT      /EDIT     /SELF


MERGE input_file_spec1,input_file_spec2[,...] output_file_spec
  Invokes the VAX/VMS Sort Utility to combine up to 10 similarly sorted input
  files.  The input files to be merged must be in sorted order before invoking
  MERGE.

  Qualifiers:
  /CHECK_SEQUENCE       /COLLATING_SEQUENCE     /DUPLICATES
  /KEY                  /SPECIFICATION          /STABLE
  /STATISTICS           /FORMAT                 /ALLOCATION
  /BUCKET_SIZE          /CONTIGUOUS             /FORMAT
  /INDEXED_SEQUENTIAL   /OVERLAY                /RELATIVE
  /SEQUENTIAL


MESSAGE file_spec[,...]
  Invokes the VAX/VMS Message Utility to compile message definition files.

  Qualifiers:
  /FILE_NAME    /LIST   /OBJECT    /SYMBOLS     /TEXT


MONITOR [class_name[,...]]
  Invokes the VAX/VMS Monitor Utility to monitor various classes of system
  performance data.  Data can be analyzed from a running system or from a
  previously created recording file.  You can execute a single MONITOR request,
  or enter MONITOR interactive mode to execute a number of requests.  The
  interactive mode is entered by entering the MONITOR command with no
  parameters or qualifiers.  A MONITOR request is terminated by entering
  <Ctrl-C> or <Ctrl-Z>.  Pressing <Ctrl-C> causes MONITOR to enter interactive
  mode, while <Ctrl-Z> returns control to DCL.

  Parameters:
  ALL_CLASSES           CLUSTER         DECNET
  DISK                  DLOCK           FCP
  FILE_SYSTEM_CACHE     IO              LOCK
  MODES                 PAGE            POOL
  PROCESSES             SCS             STATES
  SYSTEM

  Qualifiers:
  /BEGINNING            /BY_NODE        /COMMENT
  /DISPLAY              /ENDING         /FLUSH_INTERVAL
  /INPUT                /INTERVAL       /NODE
  /RECORD               /SUMMARY        /VIEWING_TIME

  Class Name Qualifiers:
  /ALL                  /AVERAGE        /CPU
  /CURRENT              /ITEM           /MAXIMUM
  /MINIMUM              /PERCENT        /TOPBIO
  /TOPCPU               /TOPDIO         /TOPFAULT


MOUNT device_name[:][,...] [volume_label[,...]] [logical_name[:]]
  Invokes the VAX/VMS Mount Utility to make a disk or tape volume available for
  use.

  Qualifiers:
  /ASSIST               /ACCESSED               /AUTOMATIC
  /BIND                 /BLOCKSIZE              /CACHE
  /CLUSTER              /COMMENT                /CONFIRM
  /COPY                 /DATA_CHECK             /DENSITY
  /EXTENSION            /FOREIGN                /GROUP
  /HDR3                 /INITIALIZE             /LABEL
  /MESSAGE              /MOUNT_VERIFICATION     /OVERRIDE
  /OWNER_UIC            /PROCESSOR              /PROTECTION
  /QUOTA                /REBUILD                /RECORDZIDE
  /SHADOW               /SHARE                  /SYSTEM
  /UNLOAD               /WINDOWS                /WRITE


ON condition THEM dcl_command
  Defines the DCL command to be executed when a command or program executed
  with a command procedure encounters an error condition or is interrupted by
  the user pressing <Ctrl-Y>.


OPEN logical_name[:] file_spec
  Opens a file for input/output.  The OPEN command assigns a logical name to
  the file and places the name in the process logical name table.

  Qualifiers:
  /APPEND       /ERROR       /READ       /SHARE       /WRITE


PATCH file_spec
  Invokes the VAX/VMS Patch Utility to patch an executable image, shareable
  image or device driver image.

  Qualifiers:
  /ABSOLUTE     /JOURNAL      /NEW_VERSION      /OUTPUT     /UPDATE
  /VOLUME


PHONE [phone_command]
  Invokes the VAX/VMS Phone Utility.  PHONE provides the facility for you to
  communicate with other users on the system or for any other VAX/VMS system
  connected to your system via a DECnet network.

  Qualifiers:
  /SCROLL       /SWITCH_HOOK      /VIEWPORT_SIZE


PRINT file_spec[,...]
  Queues-up one or more files for printing.

  Qualifiers:
  /AFTER        /BACKUP                 /BEFORE         /BURST
  /BY_OWNER     /CHARACTERISTICS        /CONFIRM        /COPIES
  /CREATED      /DELETE                 /DEVICE         /EXCLUDE
  /EXPIRED      /FEED                   /FLAG           /FORM
  /HEADER       /HOLD                   /IDENTIFY       /JOB_COUNT
  /LOWERCASE    /MODIFIED               /NAME           /NOTE
  /NOTIFY       /OPERATOR               /PAGES          /PARAMETERS
  /PASSALL      /PRIORITY               /QUEUE          /REMOTE
  /RESTART      /SETUP                  /SINCE          /SPACE
  /TRAILER      /USER


PURGE [file_spec[,...]]
  Deletes all but the highest versions of the specified files.

  Qualifiers:
  /BACKUP       /BEFORE        /BY_OWNER       /CONFIRM       /CREATED
  /ERASE        /EXCLUDE       /EXPIRED        /KEEP          /LOG
  /MODIFIED     /SINCE


READ logical_name[:] symbol_name
  The READ command inputs a single record from the specified input file and
  assigns the contents of the record to the specified symbol name.

  Qualifiers:
  /DELETE       /END_OF_FILE      /ERROR        /INDEX       /KEY
  /MATCH        /NOLOCK           /PROMPT       /TIME_OUT


RECALL [command_specifier]
  Recalls previously entered commands for reprocessing or correcting.

  Qualifier:
  /ALL


RENAME input_file_spec[,...] output_file_spec
  Modifies the file specification of an existing disk file or disk directory.

  Qualifiers:
  /BACKUP       /BEFORE       /BY_OWNER      /CONFIRM       /CREATED
  /EXCLUDE      /EXPIRED      /LOG           /MODIFIED      /NEW_VERSION
  /SINCE


REPLY ["message"]
  Allows a system operator to communicate with system users.

  Qualifiers:
  /ABORT        /ALL            /BELL                /BLANK_TAPE
  /DISABLE      /ENABLE         /INITIALIZE_TAPE     /LOG
  /NODE         /NOTIFY         /PENDING             /SHUTDOWN
  /STATUS       /TEMPORARY      /TERMINAL            /TO
  /URGENT       /USERNAME       /WAIT


REQUEST "message"
  Writes a message on the system operator's terminal, and optionally requests a
  reply.

  Qualifiers:
  /REPLY        /TO


RETURN [status_code]
  Terminates a GOSUB statement and returns control to the command following the
  GOSUB command.


RUN
  Performs the following functions:
  o  Places an image into execution in the process.
  o  Creates a subprocess or detached process to run a specified image.


RUNOFF
  Performs the following functions:
  o  Invokes the DIGITAL Standard Runoff text formatter to format one or more
     ASCII files.
  o  Invokes the DIGITAL Standard Runoff text formatter to generate a table of
     contents for one or more ASCII files.
  o  Invokes the DIGITAL Standard Runoff text formatter to generate an index
     for one or more ASCII files.


SEARCH file_spec[,...] search_string[,...]
  Searches one or more files for the specified string(s) and lists all the
  lines containing occurrences of the strings.

  Qualifiers:
  /EXACT        /EXCLUDE        /FORMAT       /HEADING        /LOG
  /MATCH        /NUMBERS        /OUTPUT       /REMAINING      /STATISTICS
  /WINDOW


SET ACCOUNTING
  Enables or disables logging various accounting activities in the system
  accounting log file SYS$MANAGER:ACCOUNTING.DAT.  The SET ACCOUNTING command
  is also used to close the current accounting log file and to open a new one
  with a higher version number.

  Qualifiers:
  /DISABLE      /ENABLE       /NEW_FILE


SET ACL object_name
  Allows you to modify the ACL (access control list) of a VMS object.

  Qualifiers:
  /ACL          /AFTER          /BEFORE         /BY_OWNER       /CONFIRM
  /CREATED      /DEFAULT        /DELETE         /EDIT           /EXCLUDE
  /JOURNAL      /KEEP           /LIKE           /LOG            /MODE
  /NEW          /OBJECT_TYPE    /RECOVER        /REPLACE        /SINCE

SET AUDIT
  Enables or disables VAX/VMS security auditing.

  Qualifiers:
  /ALARM        /DISABLE        /ENABLE


SET BROADCAST = (class_name[,...])
  Allows you to block out various terminal messages from being broadcast to
  your terminal.


SET COMMAND [file_spec[,...]]
  Invokes the VAX/VMS Command Definition Utility to add, delete or replace
  commands in your process command table or a specified command table file.

  Qualifiers:
  /DELETE       /LISTING        /OBJECT         /OUTPUT         /REPLACE
  /TABLE


SET [NO]CONTROL[=(T,Y)]
  Defines whether or not control will pass to the command language interpreter
  when <Ctrl-Y> is pressed and whether process statistics will be displayed
  when <Ctrl-T> is pressed.


SET DAY
  Used to reset the default day type specified in the user authorization file
  for the current day.

  Qualifiers:
  /DEFAULT      /LOG            /PRIMARY        /SECONDARY


SET DEFAULT device_name:directory_spec
  Changes the default device and/or directory specification.  The new default
  is used with all subsequent file operations that do not explicitly include a
  device or directory name.


SET DEVICE device_name[:]
  Establishes a printer or terminal as a spooled device, or sets the error
  logging status of a device.

  Qualifiers:
  /AVAILABLE    /DUAL_PORT      /ERROR_LOGGING     /LOG
  /SPOOLED


SET DIRECTORY directory_spec[,...]
  Modifies directory characteristics.

  Qualifiers:
  /BACKUP       /BEFORE         /BY_OWNER       /CONFIRM
  /CREATED      /EXCLUDE        /EXPIRED        /LOG
  /MODIFIED     /OWNER_UIC      /SINCE          /VERSION_LIMIT


SET FILE file_spec[,...]
  Modifies file characteristics.

  Qualifiers:
  /BACKUP               /BEFORE         /BY_OWNER           /CONFIRM
  /CREATED              /DATA_CHECK     /END_OF_FILE        /ENTER
  /ERASE_ON_DELETE      /EXCLUDE        /EXPIRATION_DATE    /EXTENSION
  /GLOBAL_BUFFER        /LOG            /NODIRECTORY        /OWNER_UIC
  /PROTECTION           /REMOVE         /SINCE              /UNLOCK
  /TRUNCATE             /VERSION_LIMIT


SET HOST node_name
  Connects your terminal, via your host processor, to another processor in a
  DECnet network.

  Qualifiers:
  /LOG          /DTE          /HSC


SET KEY
  Changes the current key definition state.  Keys are defined by the DEFINE/KEY
  command.

  Qualifiers:
  /LOG          /STATE


SET LOGINS
  Defines the number of users who may gain access to the system.  This command
  also displays the current interactive level.

  Qualifiers:
  /INTERACTIVE


SET MAGTAPE device_name[:]
  Defines default characteristics to be associated with a magnetic tape device
  for subsequent file operations.

  Qualifiers:
  /DENSITY      /END_OF_FILE       /LOG       /LOGSOFT        /REWIND
  /SKIP         /UNLOAD


SET MESSAGE [file_spec]
  Allows you to specify the format of messages, or to override or supplement
  system messages.

  Qualifiers:
  /DELETE      /FACILITY      /IDENTIFICATION       /SEVERITY      /TEXT


SET [NO]ON
  Controls command interpreter error checking.  If SET NOON is in effect, the
  command interpreter will ignore errors in a command procedure and continue
  processing.


SET OUTPUT_RATE [=delta_time]
  Defines the rate at which output will be written to a batch job log file.


SET PASSWORD
  Permits to change password in a VAX/VMS account

  Qualifiers:
  /GENERATE     /SECONDARY      /SYSTEM


SET PRINTER printer_name[:]
  Defines characteristics for a line printer.

  Qualifiers:
  /CR           /FALLBACK     /FF           /LA11        /LA180
  /LOWERCASE    /LOG          /LP11         /PAGE        /PASSALL
  /PRINTALL     /TAB          /TRUNCATE     /UNKNOWN     /UPPERCASE
  /WIDTH        /WRAP


SET PROCESS [process_name]
  Modifies execution characteristics associated with the named process for the
  current login session.  If a process is not specified, changes are made to
  the current process.

  Qualifiers:
  /CPU          /DUMP           /IDENTIFICATION         /NAME
  /PRIORITY     /PRIVILEGES     /RESOURCE_WAIT          /RESUME
  /SUSPEND      /SWAPPING


SET PROMPT [=string]
  Defines a new DCL prompt for your process.  The default prompt is a dollar
  sign ($).

  Qualifier:
  /CARRIAGE_CONTROL


SET PROTECTION [=(code)] file_spec[,...]
  Modifies the protection applied to a particular file or to a group of files.
  The protection of a file limits the access available to various groups of
  system users.  When used without a file specification, it establishes the
  default protection for all the files subsequently created during the login
  session.  May also be used to modify the protection of a non-file-oriented
  device.

  Qualifiers:
  /CONFIRM      /LOG    /PROTECTION     /DEFAULT      /DEVICE


SET QUEUE queue_name
  Used to modify the current status or attributes of a queue, or to change the
  current status or attributes of a job that is not currently executing in a
  queue.

  Qualifiers:
  /BASE_PRIOTITY     /BLOCK_LIMIT    /CHARACTERISTICS     /CPUDEFAULT
  /CPUMAXIMUM        /DEFAULT        /DISABLE_SWAPPING    /ENABLE_GENERIC
  /FORM_MOUNTED      /JOB_LIMIT      /OWNER_UIC           /PROTECTION
  /RECORD_BLOCKING   /RETAIN         /SCHEDULE            /SEPARATE
  /WSDEFAULT         /WSEXTENT       /WSQUOTA             /ENTRY


SET RESTART_VALUE=string
  Defines a test value for restarting portions of a batch job after a system
  failure.


SET RIGHTS_LIST id_name[,...]
  Allows you to modify the process or system rights list.

  Qualifiers:
  /ATTRIBUTES   /DISABLE   /ENABLE    /IDENTIFICATION   /PROCESS
  /SYSTEM


SET RMS_DEFAULT
  Used to set default values for the multiblock and multibuffer counts, network
  transfer sizes, prologue level and extend quantity used by RMS for various
  file operations.

  Qualifiers:
  /BLOCK_COUNT            /BUFFER_COUNT    /DISK
  /EXTEND_QUANTITY        /INDEXED         /MAGTAPE
  /NETWORK_BLOCK_COUNT    /PROLOG          /RELATIVE
  /SEQUENTIAL             /SYSTEM          /UNIT_RECORD


SET SYMBOL
  Controls access to local and global symbols within command procedures.

  Qualifier:
  /SCOPE


SET TERMINAL [device_name[:]]
  Modifies interpretation of various terminal characteristics.

  Qualifiers:
  /ADVANCED_VIDEO       /ALTYPEAHD              /ANSI_CRT
  /APPLICATION_KEYPAD   /AUTOBAUD               /BLOCK_MODE
  /BRDCSTMBX            /BROADCAST              /CRFILL
  /DEC_CRT              /DEVICE_TYPE            /DIALUP
  /DISCONNECT           /DISMISS                /DMA
  /ECHO                 /EDIT_MODE              /EIGHT_BIT
  /ESCAPE               /FALLBACK               /FRAME
  /FORM                 /FULLDUP                /HALFDUP
  /HANGUP               /HARDCOPY               /HOSTSYNC
  /INQUIRE              /INSERT                 /LFFILL
  /LINE_EDITING         /LOCAL_ECHO             /LOWERCASE
  /MANUAL               /MODEM                  /NUMERIC_KEYPAD
  /OVERSTRIKE           /PAGE                   /PARITY
  /PASTHRU              /PERMANENT              /PRINTER_PORT
  /PROTOCOL             /READSYNC               /REGIS
  /SCOPE                /SET_SPEED              /SECURE_SERVER
  /SIXEL_GRAPHICS       /SOFT_CHARACTERS        /SPEED
  /SWITCH               /SYSPASSWORD            /TAB
  /TTSYNC               /TYPE_AHEAD             /UNKNOWN
  /UPPERCASE            /WIDTH                  /WRAP


SET TIME [=time]
  Resets the system time to be used with all time-dependent activities in the
  VAX/VMS operating system.


SET UIC uic
  Establishes a new default user identification code (UIC).


SET [NO]VERIFY [=([NO]PROCEDURE,[NO]IMAGE)]
  Controls whether command and data lines, in a command procedure, are
  displayed as they are processed.


SET VOLUME device_spec[:][,...]
  Modifies the characteristics of a mounted Files-11 volume.

  Qualifiers:
  /ACCESSED         /DATA_CHECK             /ERASE_ON_DELETE
  /EXTENSION        /FILE_PROTECTION        /HIGHWATER_MARKING
  /LABEL            /LOG                    /MOUNT_VERIFICATION
  /OWNER_UIC        /PROTECTION             /REBUILD
  /RETENTION        /UNLOAD                 /USER_NAME
  /WINDOWS


SET WORKING_SET
  Sets the default working set size for the current process, or sets an upper
  limit to which the working set size can be changed by an image that the
  process executes.

  Qualifiers:
  /ADJUST      /EXTENT       /LIMIT       /LOG      /QUOTA


SHOW ACCOUNTING
  Displays items for which accounting is enabled.

  Qualifier:
  /OUTPUT


SHOW ACL
  Permits you to display the access control list (ACL) of a VAX/VMS object.

  Qualifier:
  /OBJECT_TYPE


SHOW AUDIT
  Supplies a display that identifies enable security auditing features and the
  events that they will report.

  Qualifier:
  /OUTPUT


SHOW BROADCAST
  Displays messages classes that currently are being affected by the SET
  BROADCAST command.

  Qualifier:
  /OUTPUT


SHOW DEFAULT
  Displays the current default device and directory specification, along with
  any equivalence strings that have been defined.


SHOW DEVICES [device_name[:]]
  Displays the status of a device on the running VAX/VMS system.

  Qualifiers:
  /ALLOCATED    /BRIEF      /FILES        /FULL       /MOUNTED
  /OUTPUT       /SYSTEM     /WINDOWS      /SERVED


SHOW ERROR
  Displays an error count for all devices with an error count greater than 0.

  Qualifiers:
  /FULL         /OUTPUT


SHOW KEY [key_name]
  Displays the key definition for the specified key.

  Qualifiers:
  /ALL       /BRIEF      /DIRECTORY       /FULL     /STATE


SHOW LOGICAL [logical_name[:],[...]]
  Displays logical names from one or more logical name tables, or displays the
  equivalence string(s) assigned to the specified logical names(s).

  Qualifiers:
  /ACCESS_MODE        /ALL          /DESCENDANTS      /FULL
  /GROUP              /JOB          /OUTPUT           /PROCESS
  /STRUCTURE          /SYSTEM       /TABLE


SHOE MAGTAPE device_name[:]
  Displays the characteristics and status of a specified magnetic tape device.

  Qualifier:
  /OUTPUT


SHOW MEMORY
  Displays availability and use of memory-related resources.

  Qualifiers:
  /ALL                 /FILES     /FULL       /OUTPUT
  /PHYSICAL_PAGES      /POOL      /SLOTS


SHOW NETWORK
  Displays node information about the DECnet network of which your host
  processor is a member.

  Qualifier:
  /OUTPUT


SHOW PRINTER device_name[:]
  Displays characteristics defined for a system printer.

  Qualifier:
  /OUTPUT


SHOW PROCESS [process_name]
  Displays information about a process and any of its subprocesses.

  Qualifiers:
  /ACCOUNTING   /ALL            /CONTINUOUS     /IDENTIFICATION    /MEMORY
  /OUTPUT       /PRIVILEGES     /QUOTAS         /SUBPROCESSES


SHOW PROTECTION
  Displays the file protection that will be applied to all new files created
  during the current login session.


SHOW QUEUE [queue_name]
  Displays information about queues and the jobs currently in queue.

  Qualifiers:
  /ALL          /BATCH          /BRIEF          /DEVICE
  /FILES        /FULL           /OUTPUT         /CHARACTERISTICS
  /FORM


SHOW QUOTA
  Displays the disk quota that is currently authorized for a specific user on a
  specific disk.

  Qualifiers:
  /DISK         /USER


SHOW RMS_DEFAULT
  Displays the default multiblock count, multibuffer count, network transfer
  size, prologue level and extend quantity that RMS will use for file
  operations.

  Qualifier:
  /OUTPUT


SHOW STATUS
  Displays status information for the current process.


SHOW SYMBOL [symbol_name]
  Displays the value of a local or global symbol.

  Qualifiers:
  /ALL          /GLOBAL         /LOCAL          /LOG


SHOW SYSTEM
  Displays a list of processes currently running on a system.

  Qualifiers:
  /BATCH        /FULL         /NETWORK      /OUTPUT     /PROCESS
  /SUBPROCESS


SHOW TERMINAL [device_name[:]]
  Displays the characteristics of a specified terminal.

  Qualifiers:
  /OUTPUT       /PERMANENT


SHOW TIME
  Displays the current system date and time.


SHOW TRANSLATION logical_name
  Searches the logical name tables for a specified logical name, then returns
  the first equivalence name of the match found.

  Qualifier:
  /TABLE


SHOW USERS [username]
  Displays a list of all users currently using the system and their terminal
  names, usernames and their process identification codes.

  Qualifier:
  /OUTPUT


SHOW WORKING_SET
  Displays the current working set limit, quota and extent assigned to the
  current process.

  Qualifier:
  /OUTPUT


SORT input_file_spec[,...] output_file_spec
  Invokes the VAX/VMS Sort Utility to reorder records in a file into a defined
  sequence.

  Qualifiers:
  /COLLATING_SEQUENCE   /DUPLICATES             /KEY
  /PROCESS              /SPECIFICATION          /STABLE
  /STATISTICS           /WORK_FILES             /FORMAT

  Output File Qualifiers:
  /ALLOCATION           /BUCKET_SIZE            /CONTIGUOUS
  /FORMAT               /INDEXED_SEQUENTIAL     /OVERLAY
  /RELATIVE             /SEQUENTIAL


SPAWN [command_string]
  Creates a subprocess to the current process.

  Qualifiers:
  /CARRIAGE CONTROL     /CLI            /INPUT
  /KEYPAD               /LOG            /LOGICAL_NAMES
  /NOTIFY               /OUTPUT         /PROCESS
  /PROMPT               /SYMBOLS        /TABLE
  /WAIT


START/QUEUE queue_name
  Starts or restarts the specified queue.


STOP process_name
  Specifies the name of a process to be deleted from the system.  If the
  /IDENTIFICATION qualifier is used, the process name is ignored.

  Qualifier:
  /IDENTIFICATION


STOP/QUEUE queue_name[:]
  Causes the specified queue to pause.

  Qualifiers:
  /ABORT        /ENTRY          /MANAGER
  /NEXT         /REQUEUE        /RESET


SUBMIT file_spec[,...]
  Enters a command procedure(s) into a batch queue.

  Qualifiers:
  /AFTER                /BACKUP         /BEFORE         /BY_OWNER
  /CHARACTERISTICS      /CLI            /CONFIRM        /CPUTIME
  /CREATED              /DELETE         /EXCLUDE        /EXPIRED
  /HOLD                 /IDENTIFY       /KEEP           /LOG_FILE
  /MODIFIED             /NAME           /NOTIFY         /PARAMETERS
  /PRINTER              /PRIORITY       /QUEUE          /REMOTE
  /RESTART              /SINCE          /USER           /WSDEFAULT
  /WSEXTENT             /WSQUOTA


SYNCHRONIZE [job_name]
  Places the process issuing the command into a wait state until the specified
  job completes execution.

  Qualifiers:
  /ENTRY        /QUEUE


TYPE file_spec[,...]
  Displays the contents of a file or group of files on the current output
  device (normally your terminal screen).

  Qualifiers:
  /BACKUP       /BEFORE        /BY_OWNER       /CONFIRM       /CREATED
  /EXCLUDE      /EXPIRED       /MODIFIED       /OUTPUT        /PAGE
  /SINCE


UNLOCK file_spec[,...]
  Makes a file that has been made inaccessible as a result of being improperly
  closed accessible.

  Qualifiers:
  /CONFIRM      /LOG


WAIT delta_time
  Places the current process in a wait state until a specified period of time
  has passed.


WRITE logical_name expression[,...]
  Writes the specified data record to the output file indicated by the logical
  name.

  Qualifiers:
  /ERROR        /SYMBOL         /UPDATE


                 <:=- Part E : Lexical Function Reference -=:>


 Introduction
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~
Part F is a Lexical Function Reference.  Parameters for the lexicals are in
parenthesis after the function name, and parenthesis are required whether or
not the lexical function requires parameters.


 Lexical Function Reference
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
F$CVSI (bit_position, width, string)
  Used to extract bit fields from a character string.  The result is converted
  to a signed integer value.


F$CFTIME (input_time, output_time, field)
  Converts absolute or combination time to the format yyyy-mm-dd
  hh:mmm:ss.cc.  This function can also be used to return information about an
  absolute, combination, or delta time string.


F$CVUI (bit_position, width, string)
  Extracts bit fields from a character string and converts the result to an
  unsigned integer value.


F$DIRECTORY ()
  Returns the default directory name as a character string.


F$EDIT (string, edit_list)
  Used to edit a character string based on the parameters specified in the
  edit_list.


F$ELEMENT (element_number, delimiter, string)
  Extracts an element from a character string in which the elements are
  separated by some specified delimiter.


F$ENVIRONMENT (item)
  Returns information about the DCL command environment.


F$EXTRACT (offset, length, string)
  Extracts a substring from a given character string.


F$FAO (control_string[,arg1,art2...arg15])
  Calls the $FAO system service to convert a specified control string to
  formatted ASCII.  This function may be used to insert variable character
  string data into an output string or convert integer values to ASCII and
  substitute the result into the output string.


F$FILE_ATTRIBUTES (file_spec, item)
  Returns attribute information for the specified file.


F$GETDVI (device, item)
  Calls the $GETDVI system service to return an item of information on a
  specified device.  This function allows a process to obtain information for a
  device to which the process has not necessarily allocated or assigned a
  channel.


F$GETJPI (pid, item)
  Calls the $GETJPI system service to return status and identification
  information about the running system or about a node in the VAXcluster (if
  the system is a VAXcluster).


F$IDENTIFIER (identifier, conversion_type)
  Converts an identifier into its integer equivalent, or vice versa.  An
  identifier is a name or number that identifies a category of data resource
  users.  The system uses identifiers to determine user access to a system
  resource.


F$INTEGER (expression)
  Returns the integer value of the result of the specified expression.


F$LENGTH (string)
  Returns the length of a specified character string.


F$LOCATE (substring, string)
  Locates a character or character substring within a string and returns its
  offset within the string.  If the character or character substring is not
  found, the function returns the length of the string that was searched.


F$MESSAGE (status_code)
  Returns a character string containing the message associated with a system
  status code.


F$MODE ()
  Returns a character string displaying the mode in which a process is
  executing.


F$PARSE (file_spec[,related_spec][,field][,parse_type])
  Calls the $PARSE RMS service to parse a file specification and return either
  its expanded file specification or a particular file specification field that
  you have specified.


F$PID (context_symbol)
  Returns a process identification number (PID), and updates the context symbol
  to point to the current position in the system's process list.


F$PRIVILEGE (priv_states)
  Returns a value of true or false depending on whether your current process
  privileges match the privileges listed in the parameter argument.


F$PROCESS ()
  Obtains the current process name as a character string.


F$SEARCH (file_spec[,stream_id])
  Calls the $SEARCH RMS service to search a directory and return the full file
  specification for a specified file.


F$SETPRV (priv_states)
  Returns a list of keywords indicating current user privileges.  In addition,
  this function may be used to call the $SETPRV system service to enable or
  disable specified user privileges.  The return string indicates the status of
  the user privileges before any changes have been made with the F$SETPRV
  function.


F$STRING (expression)
  Returns the character string equivalent of the result of the specified
  expression.


F$TIME ()
  Returns the current date and time string.


F$TRNLNM (logical_name[,table][,index][,mode][,case][,item])
  Translates a logical name to its equivalence string, or returns the requested
  attributes of the logical name.  The equivalence string is not checked to
  determine if it is a logical name or not.


F$TYPE (symbol_name)
  Returns the data type of a symbol.


F$USER ()
  Returns the user identification code (UIC), in named format, for the current
  user.  The F$USER function has no arguments.


F$VERIFY ([procedure_value][,image_value])
  Returns an integer value which indicates whether procedure verification mode
  is currently on or off.  If used with arguments, the F$VERIFY function can
  turn verification mode on or off.  You must include the parentheses after the
  F$VERIFY function, whether or not you specify arguments.


 Default File Types
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
These file types are conventions set by DEC and may not be followed by other
software companies.

 Type    Contents
 ~~~~    ~~~~~~~~
 ANL     Output file from the ANALYZE command
 BAS     Source input file for BASIC compiler
 CLD     Command line interpreter command description file
 COM     Command procedure file
 DAT     Data file (input or output)
 DIF     Output file from the DIFFERENCES command
 DIR     Subdirectory
 DIS     MAIL distribution list
 DMP     Output from the DUMP command
 EDT     EDT editor initialization file
 EXE     VAX/VMS executable program created with the LINK command
 FDL     File Definition language file created with the EDIT/FDL or
         ANALYZE/RMS/FDL command
 FOR     Source input for FORTRAN compiler
 HLB     Help text library
 HLP     Help text file, usually as source input to help text library file
 JNL     EDT editor journal file
 LIS     List file created by an assembler or compiler
 LOG     Information file created by a batch job, DECnet, etc.
 MAI     Mail message storage file
 MAR     Source input file for MACRO assembler
 MLB     MAXCRO source library
 OBJ     Intermediate object file created by a compiler or assembler
 OLB     Object module library
 OPT     Option input file for the LINK command
 STB     Symbol table
 SYS     System image
 TJL     Journal file created by the TPU editor
 TLB     Text library
 TMP     General purpose temporary file
 TPU     Command input file for the TPU editor
 TXT     Text file


 Device Names
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~
The following are common VAX/VMS device codes and their corresponding types.

 Code    Device Type
 ~~~~    ~~~~~~~~~~~
 CS      Console boot/storage device
 DA      RC25 (25 MB fixed/25 MB removable)
 DB      RP05, RP06 disk
 DD      TU58 tape
 DJ      RA60 disk
 DL      RL02 disk
 DR      RM03 RM05, RM80, RP07 disk
 DU      RA80, RA81, RA82 disk
 DX      RX01 floppy
 DY      RX02 floppy
 LC      Line printer device on DMF32
 LP      Line printer device on LP11
 LT      Local area terminal (LAT)
 MB      Mailbox device
 MF      TU78 magnetic tape drive
 MS      TS11 magnetic tape drive
 MT      TU45, TU77, TE16 magnetic tape drive
 MU      TK50, TA78, TA81, TU81 magnetic tape drive
 NL      Null device
 OP      Operators console device
 RT      Remote terminal (via DECnet)
 TT      Interactive terminal device
 TX      Interactive terminal device
 VT      Virtual terminal
 XE      DEUNA
 XQ      DEQNA
_______________________________________________________________________________
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